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Tumour Microenvironment: Roles of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, O-GlcNAcylation, Acetyl-CoA and Melatonergic Pathway in Regulating Dynamic Metabolic Interactions across Cell Types—Tumour Microenvironment and Metabolism

Clinical Research Communications (CRC) Scotland & London, Eccleston Square, London SW1V 6UT, UK
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010141
Received: 2 December 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 22 December 2020 / Published: 25 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection 21st Anniversary of IJMS: Advances in Biochemistry)
This article reviews the dynamic interactions of the tumour microenvironment, highlighting the roles of acetyl-CoA and melatonergic pathway regulation in determining the interactions between oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis across the array of cells forming the tumour microenvironment. Many of the factors associated with tumour progression and immune resistance, such as yin yang (YY)1 and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β, regulate acetyl-CoA and the melatonergic pathway, thereby having significant impacts on the dynamic interactions of the different types of cells present in the tumour microenvironment. The association of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) with immune suppression in the tumour microenvironment may be mediated by the AhR-induced cytochrome P450 (CYP)1b1-driven ‘backward’ conversion of melatonin to its immediate precursor N-acetylserotonin (NAS). NAS within tumours and released from tumour microenvironment cells activates the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor, TrkB, thereby increasing the survival and proliferation of cancer stem-like cells. Acetyl-CoA is a crucial co-substrate for initiation of the melatonergic pathway, as well as co-ordinating the interactions of OXPHOS and glycolysis in all cells of the tumour microenvironment. This provides a model of the tumour microenvironment that emphasises the roles of acetyl-CoA and the melatonergic pathway in shaping the dynamic intercellular metabolic interactions of the various cells within the tumour microenvironment. The potentiation of YY1 and GSK3β by O-GlcNAcylation will drive changes in metabolism in tumours and tumour microenvironment cells in association with their regulation of the melatonergic pathway. The emphasis on metabolic interactions across cell types in the tumour microenvironment provides novel future research and treatment directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; tumour microenvironment; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; immune; melatonin; mitochondria; acetyl-CoA; treatment; racism cancer; tumour microenvironment; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; immune; melatonin; mitochondria; acetyl-CoA; treatment; racism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anderson, G. Tumour Microenvironment: Roles of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, O-GlcNAcylation, Acetyl-CoA and Melatonergic Pathway in Regulating Dynamic Metabolic Interactions across Cell Types—Tumour Microenvironment and Metabolism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 141. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010141

AMA Style

Anderson G. Tumour Microenvironment: Roles of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, O-GlcNAcylation, Acetyl-CoA and Melatonergic Pathway in Regulating Dynamic Metabolic Interactions across Cell Types—Tumour Microenvironment and Metabolism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(1):141. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010141

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anderson, George. 2021. "Tumour Microenvironment: Roles of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, O-GlcNAcylation, Acetyl-CoA and Melatonergic Pathway in Regulating Dynamic Metabolic Interactions across Cell Types—Tumour Microenvironment and Metabolism" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 1: 141. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010141

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