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Open AccessArticle

Real-Time 3D Imaging and Inhibition Analysis of Various Amyloid Aggregations Using Quantum Dots

1
Department of Applied Science and Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran 050-8585, Japan
2
Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Miyakonojo College, Miyakonojo 885-8567, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21061978
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 1 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Folding and Misfolding ---- Structure and Functions)
Amyloidosis refers to aggregates of protein that accumulate and are deposited as amyloid fibrils into plaques. When these are detected in organs, they are the main hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other related diseases. Recent medical advances have shown that many precursors and proteins can induce amyloidosis even though the mechanism of amyloid aggregation and the relationship of these proteins to amyloidosis remains mostly unclear. In this study, we report the real-time 3D-imaging and inhibition analysis of amyloid β (Aβ), tau, and α-synuclein aggregation utilizing the affinity between quantum dots (QD) and amyloid aggregates. We successfully visualized these amyloid aggregations in real-time using fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy simply by adding commercially available QD. The observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that QD particles bound to all amyloid fibrils. The 3D-imaging with QD revealed differences between amyloid aggregates composed of different amyloid peptides that could not be detected by TEM. We were also able to quantify the inhibition activities of these proteins by rosmarinic acid, which has high activity for Aβ aggregation, from fluorescence micrographs as half-maximal effective concentrations. These imaging techniques with QD serve as quick, easy, and powerful tools to understand amyloidosis and to discover drugs for therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: amyloidosis; amyloid β; tau; α-synuclein; amyloid aggregation inhibitor; quantum dot; 4D-imaging amyloidosis; amyloid β; tau; α-synuclein; amyloid aggregation inhibitor; quantum dot; 4D-imaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, X.; Galaqin, N.; Tainaka, R.; Shimamori, K.; Kuragano, M.; Noguchi, T.Q.P.; Tokuraku, K. Real-Time 3D Imaging and Inhibition Analysis of Various Amyloid Aggregations Using Quantum Dots. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21061978

AMA Style

Lin X, Galaqin N, Tainaka R, Shimamori K, Kuragano M, Noguchi TQP, Tokuraku K. Real-Time 3D Imaging and Inhibition Analysis of Various Amyloid Aggregations Using Quantum Dots. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(6):1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21061978

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Xuguang; Galaqin, Nuomin; Tainaka, Reina; Shimamori, Keiya; Kuragano, Masahiro; Noguchi, Taro Q.P.; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka. 2020. "Real-Time 3D Imaging and Inhibition Analysis of Various Amyloid Aggregations Using Quantum Dots" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 6: 1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21061978

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