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Open AccessReview

Arginine Derivatives in Cerebrovascular Diseases: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications

1
Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
2
Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20249 Hamburg, Germany
3
DZHK (Deutsches Zentrum für Herz-Kreislauf-Forschung e.V.), partner site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, 20249 Hamburg, Germany
4
Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20249 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051798
Received: 28 January 2020 / Revised: 27 February 2020 / Accepted: 1 March 2020 / Published: 5 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arginine Metabolism)
The amino acid L-arginine serves as substrate for the nitric oxide synthase which is crucial in vascular function and disease. Derivatives of arginine, such as asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), are regarded as markers of endothelial dysfunction and have been implicated in vascular disorders. While there is a variety of studies consolidating ADMA as biomarker of cerebrovascular risk, morbidity and mortality, SDMA is currently emerging as an interesting metabolite with distinct characteristics in ischemic stroke. In contrast to dimethylarginines, homoarginine is inversely associated with adverse events and mortality in cerebrovascular diseases and might constitute a modifiable protective risk factor. This review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence for the pathophysiological role of arginine derivatives in cerebrovascular ischemic diseases. We discuss the complex mechanisms of arginine metabolism in health and disease and its potential clinical implications in diverse aspects of ischemic stroke. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADMA; atherosclerosis; arginine; atrial fibrillation; biomarker; endothelial dysfunction; ESUS; homoarginine; SDMA; stroke ADMA; atherosclerosis; arginine; atrial fibrillation; biomarker; endothelial dysfunction; ESUS; homoarginine; SDMA; stroke
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grosse, G.M.; Schwedhelm, E.; Worthmann, H.; Choe, C.-u. Arginine Derivatives in Cerebrovascular Diseases: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1798. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051798

AMA Style

Grosse GM, Schwedhelm E, Worthmann H, Choe C-u. Arginine Derivatives in Cerebrovascular Diseases: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(5):1798. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051798

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grosse, Gerrit M.; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Worthmann, Hans; Choe, Chi-un. 2020. "Arginine Derivatives in Cerebrovascular Diseases: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 5: 1798. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051798

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