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Article

Effects of SCCO2, Gamma Irradiation, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Treatments on the Initial Properties of Tendon Allografts

Surgical and Orthopedic Research Laboratories, Prince of Wales Clinical School, Prince of Wales Hospital, University of New South Wales, Randwick, New South Wales 2031, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051565
Received: 28 November 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 15 February 2020 / Published: 25 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tendon/Ligament Reconstruction by Tissue Engineering)
Sterile and decellularized allograft tendons are viable biomaterials used in reconstructive surgeries for dense connective tissue injuries. Established allograft processing techniques including gamma irradiation and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) can affect tissue integrity. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) represents a novel alternative that has the potential to decellularize and sterilize tendons with minimized exposure to denaturants, shortened treatment time, lack of toxic residues, and superior tissue penetration, and thus efficacy. This study attempted to develop a single-step hybrid decellularization and sterilization protocol for tendons that involved SCCO2 treatment with various chemical additives. The processed tendons were evaluated with mechanical testing, histology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Uniaxial mechanical testing showed that tendons treated with SCCO2 and additive NovaKillTM Gen2 and 0.1% SDS had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and Young’s modulus compared to gamma-irradiated and standard-SDS-treated tendons. This was corroborated by the ultrastructural intactness of SCCO2-treated tendons as examined by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy, which was not preserved in gamma-irradiated and standard SDS-treated tendons. However, complete decellularization was not achieved by the experimented SCCO2-SDS protocols used in this study. The present study therefore serves as a concrete starting point for development of an SCCO2-based combined sterilization and decellularization protocol for allograft tendons, where additive choice is to be optimized. View Full-Text
Keywords: Allograft; decellularization; sterilization; supercritical carbon dioxide; supercritical fluid; tendon Allograft; decellularization; sterilization; supercritical carbon dioxide; supercritical fluid; tendon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, Y.; Lovric, V.; Wang, T.; Oliver, R.A.; Walsh, W.R. Effects of SCCO2, Gamma Irradiation, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Treatments on the Initial Properties of Tendon Allografts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051565

AMA Style

Sun Y, Lovric V, Wang T, Oliver RA, Walsh WR. Effects of SCCO2, Gamma Irradiation, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Treatments on the Initial Properties of Tendon Allografts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(5):1565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051565

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Yikan; Lovric, Vedran; Wang, Tian; Oliver, Rema A.; Walsh, William R. 2020. "Effects of SCCO2, Gamma Irradiation, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Treatments on the Initial Properties of Tendon Allografts" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 5: 1565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051565

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