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Article

MYC Targets Scores Are Associated with Cancer Aggressiveness and Poor Survival in ER-Positive Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer

by 1,2, 1,3, 3 and 1,2,4,5,6,*
1
Breast Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, New York, NY 14263, USA
2
Department of Surgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, NY 14263, USA
3
Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan
4
Department of Surgery, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata 951-8510, Japan
5
Department of Breast Surgery and Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan
6
Department of Gastrointestinal Tract Surgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218127
Received: 1 October 2020 / Revised: 25 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 30 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Attacking Cancer Progression and Metastasis)
MYC is one of the most studied oncogenes that is known to promote cell proliferation. We utilized MYC targets v1 and MYC targets v2 scores of gene set variation analysis and hypothesized that these scores correlate with tumor aggressiveness and survival outcomes. We examined a total of 3109 breast cancer patients from TCGA, METABRIC, and GSE124647 cohorts. In each cohort, the patients were divided into high- and low-score groups using the upper third value as the cut off. As expected, higher scores were related to increased cell proliferation and worse clinical and pathologic features. High MYC targets scores were associated with worse survival, specifically in primary ER-positive breast cancer, consistently in both TCGA and METABRIC cohorts. In ER-positive breast cancer, high MYC targets v1, but not v2 score, was associated with high mutation load, and high MYC targets v1 and v2 scores were both associated with increased infiltration of pro- and anti-cancerous immune cells. We found that high MYC scores were associated with worse survival in metastatic breast cancer. Our findings show that the MYC targets v1 and v2 scores are associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in ER-positive primary tumors, as well as in metastatic breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; biomarker; MYC; tumor gene expression breast cancer; biomarker; MYC; tumor gene expression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schulze, A.; Oshi, M.; Endo, I.; Takabe, K. MYC Targets Scores Are Associated with Cancer Aggressiveness and Poor Survival in ER-Positive Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8127. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218127

AMA Style

Schulze A, Oshi M, Endo I, Takabe K. MYC Targets Scores Are Associated with Cancer Aggressiveness and Poor Survival in ER-Positive Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(21):8127. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218127

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schulze, Amy, Masanori Oshi, Itaru Endo, and Kazuaki Takabe. 2020. "MYC Targets Scores Are Associated with Cancer Aggressiveness and Poor Survival in ER-Positive Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 21: 8127. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218127

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