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Open AccessArticle

Internalization of the Aspergillus nidulans AstA Transporter into Mitochondria Depends on Growth Conditions, and Affects ATP Levels and Sulfite Oxidase Activity

1
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5A str., 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Sobieskiego 9 str., 02-957 Warsaw, Poland
3
Morphological Sciences Department, College for Medical Sciences of University of Rzeszów, Leszka Czarnego str. 4, 35-615 Rzeszów, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(20), 7727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207727
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 17 October 2020 / Published: 19 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
The astA gene encoding an alternative sulfate transporter was originally cloned from the genome of the Japanese Aspergillus nidulans isolate as a suppressor of sulfate permease-deficient strains. Expression of the astA gene is under the control of the sulfur metabolite repression system. The encoded protein transports sulfate across the cell membrane. In this study we show that AstA, having orthologs in numerous pathogenic or endophytic fungi, has a second function and, depending on growth conditions, can be translocated into mitochondria. This effect is especially pronounced when an astA-overexpressing strain grows on solid medium at 37 °C. AstA is also recruited to the mitochondria in the presence of mitochondria-affecting compounds such as menadione or antimycin A, which are also detrimental to the growth of the astA-overexpressing strain. Disruption of the Hsp70–Porin1 mitochondrial import system either by methylene blue, an Hsp70 inhibitor, or by deletion of the porin1-encoding gene abolishes AstA translocation into the mitochondria. Furthermore, we observed altered ATP levels and sulfite oxidase activity in the astA-overexpressing strain in a manner dependent on sulfur sources. The presented data indicate that AstA is also involved in the mitochondrial sulfur metabolism in some fungi, and thereby indirectly manages redox potential and energy state. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus nidulans; alternative sulfate transporter; AstA; mitochondria; respiratory chain; pathogenic fungi; Hsp70; porin; thiol; sulfite oxidase Aspergillus nidulans; alternative sulfate transporter; AstA; mitochondria; respiratory chain; pathogenic fungi; Hsp70; porin; thiol; sulfite oxidase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Piłsyk, S.; Mieczkowski, A.; Golan, M.P.; Wawrzyniak, A.; Kruszewska, J.S. Internalization of the Aspergillus nidulans AstA Transporter into Mitochondria Depends on Growth Conditions, and Affects ATP Levels and Sulfite Oxidase Activity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7727.

AMA Style

Piłsyk S, Mieczkowski A, Golan MP, Wawrzyniak A, Kruszewska JS. Internalization of the Aspergillus nidulans AstA Transporter into Mitochondria Depends on Growth Conditions, and Affects ATP Levels and Sulfite Oxidase Activity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(20):7727.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Piłsyk, Sebastian; Mieczkowski, Adam; Golan, Maciej P.; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Kruszewska, Joanna S. 2020. "Internalization of the Aspergillus nidulans AstA Transporter into Mitochondria Depends on Growth Conditions, and Affects ATP Levels and Sulfite Oxidase Activity" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 20: 7727.

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