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Article

Atraric Acid Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells and Mouse Models

1
Department of Pharmacy, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon 549-742, Korea
2
Suncheon Research Center for National Medicines, Suncheon 549-742, Korea
3
Department of Biology, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 549-742, Korea
4
Department of Environmental Education, Korea Lichen Research Institute, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 549-742, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7070; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197070
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 19 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
Lichens, composite organisms resulting from the symbiotic association between the fungi and algae, produce a variety of secondary metabolites that exhibit pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of the secondary metabolite atraric acid produced by Heterodermia hypoleuca. The results confirmed that atraric acid could regulate induced pro-inflammatory cytokine, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, induced nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, atraric acid downregulated the expression of phosphorylated IκB, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling pathway to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Based on these results, the anti-inflammatory effect of atraric acid during LPS-induced endotoxin shock in a mouse model was confirmed. In the atraric acid treated-group, cytokine production was decreased in the peritoneum and serum, and each organ damaged by LPS-stimulation was recovered. These results indicate that atraric acid has an anti-inflammatory effect, which may be the underlying molecular mechanism involved in the inactivation of the ERK/NFκB signaling pathway, demonstrating its potential therapeutic value for treating inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-inflammation; endotoxin shock; atraric acid; lichen; Heterodermia hypoleuca anti-inflammation; endotoxin shock; atraric acid; lichen; Heterodermia hypoleuca
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mun, S.-K.; Kang, K.-Y.; Jang, H.-Y.; Hwang, Y.-H.; Hong, S.-G.; Kim, S.-J.; Cho, H.-W.; Chang, D.-J.; Hur, J.-S.; Yee, S.-T. Atraric Acid Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells and Mouse Models. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7070. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197070

AMA Style

Mun S-K, Kang K-Y, Jang H-Y, Hwang Y-H, Hong S-G, Kim S-J, Cho H-W, Chang D-J, Hur J-S, Yee S-T. Atraric Acid Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells and Mouse Models. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(19):7070. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197070

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mun, Seul-Ki, Kyung-Yun Kang, Ho-Yeol Jang, Yun-Ho Hwang, Seong-Gyeol Hong, Su-Jin Kim, Hyun-Wook Cho, Dong-Jo Chang, Jae-Seoun Hur, and Sung-Tae Yee. 2020. "Atraric Acid Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells and Mouse Models" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 19: 7070. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197070

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