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Molecular Investigation on a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Xenograft Model Exposed to Proton Beams

Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM-CNR), 90015 Cefalù (Palermo), Italy
National Laboratory of South, National Institute for Nuclear Physics (LNS-INFN), 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of Medical, Surgical and Advanced Technological Sciences “Gian Filippo Ingrassia”, Section of Anatomic Pathology, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 Groningen, The Netherlands
Department of Drug Science, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences (BIOMETEC), University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6337;
Received: 23 June 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 29 August 2020 / Published: 1 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Damage in Biomolecules and Cells)
Specific breast cancer (BC) subtypes are associated with bad prognoses due to the absence of successful treatment plans. The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype, with estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) negative receptor status, is a clinical challenge for oncologists, because of its aggressiveness and the absence of effective therapies. In addition, proton therapy (PT) represents an effective treatment against both inaccessible area located or conventional radiotherapy (RT)-resistant cancers, becoming a promising therapeutic choice for TNBC. Our study aimed to analyze the in vivo molecular response to PT and its efficacy in a MDA-MB-231 TNBC xenograft model. TNBC xenograft models were irradiated with 2, 6 and 9 Gy of PT. Gene expression profile (GEP) analyses and immunohistochemical assay (IHC) were performed to highlight specific pathways and key molecules involved in cell response to the radiation. GEP analysis revealed in depth the molecular response to PT, showing a considerable immune response, cell cycle and stem cell process regulation. Only the dose of 9 Gy shifted the balance toward pro-death signaling as a dose escalation which can be easily performed using proton beams, which permit targeting tumors while avoiding damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. View Full-Text
Keywords: triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); proton therapy; xenograft mice; microarray triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); proton therapy; xenograft mice; microarray
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cammarata, F.P.; Forte, G.I.; Broggi, G.; Bravatà, V.; Minafra, L.; Pisciotta, P.; Calvaruso, M.; Tringali, R.; Tomasello, B.; Torrisi, F.; Petringa, G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Acquaviva, R.; Caltabiano, R.; Russo, G. Molecular Investigation on a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Xenograft Model Exposed to Proton Beams. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6337.

AMA Style

Cammarata FP, Forte GI, Broggi G, Bravatà V, Minafra L, Pisciotta P, Calvaruso M, Tringali R, Tomasello B, Torrisi F, Petringa G, Cirrone GAP, Cuttone G, Acquaviva R, Caltabiano R, Russo G. Molecular Investigation on a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Xenograft Model Exposed to Proton Beams. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(17):6337.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cammarata, Francesco P., Giusi I. Forte, Giuseppe Broggi, Valentina Bravatà, Luigi Minafra, Pietro Pisciotta, Marco Calvaruso, Roberta Tringali, Barbara Tomasello, Filippo Torrisi, Giada Petringa, Giuseppe A.P. Cirrone, Giacomo Cuttone, Rosaria Acquaviva, Rosario Caltabiano, and Giorgio Russo. 2020. "Molecular Investigation on a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Xenograft Model Exposed to Proton Beams" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 17: 6337.

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