Next Article in Journal
Transglutaminase 2-Mediated p53 Depletion Promotes Angiogenesis by Increasing HIF-1α-p300 Binding in Renal Cell Carcinoma
Previous Article in Journal
Cellular Mechanisms of Circulating Tumor Cells During Breast Cancer Metastasis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Reaction of 1-propanol with Ozone in Aqueous Media
Open AccessReview

Exclusion Zone Phenomena in Water—A Critical Review of Experimental Findings and Theories

1
Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2
School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia
3
School of Earth, Environmental and Biological Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Institute for Future Environments, QUT, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
4
School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, QUT, Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre—Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145041
Received: 9 May 2020 / Revised: 27 June 2020 / Accepted: 13 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Structure and Function of the Second Phase of Liquid Water)
The existence of the exclusion zone (EZ), a layer of water in which plastic microspheres are repelled from hydrophilic surfaces, has now been independently demonstrated by several groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms which generate EZs would help with understanding the possible importance of EZs in biology and in engineering applications such as filtration and microfluidics. Here we review the experimental evidence for EZ phenomena in water and the major theories that have been proposed. We review experimental results from birefringence, neutron radiography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and other studies. Pollack theorizes that water in the EZ exists has a different structure than bulk water, and that this accounts for the EZ. We present several alternative explanations for EZs and argue that Schurr’s theory based on diffusiophoresis presents a compelling alternative explanation for the core EZ phenomenon. Among other things, Schurr’s theory makes predictions about the growth of the EZ with time which have been confirmed by Florea et al. and others. We also touch on several possible confounding factors that make experimentation on EZs difficult, such as charged surface groups, dissolved solutes, and adsorbed nanobubbles. View Full-Text
Keywords: water; exclusion zone; diffusiophoresis; repulsive van der Waals water; exclusion zone; diffusiophoresis; repulsive van der Waals
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Elton, D.C.; Spencer, P.D.; Riches, J.D.; Williams, E.D. Exclusion Zone Phenomena in Water—A Critical Review of Experimental Findings and Theories. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5041.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop