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Effects of the Emitted Light Spectrum of Liquid Crystal Displays on Light-Induced Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Damage

Departments of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No.7, Zhongshan South Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092318
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are used as screens in consumer electronics and are indispensable in the modern era of computing. LCDs utilize light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as backlight modules and emit high levels of blue light, which may cause retinal photoreceptor cell damage. However, traditional blue light filters may decrease the luminance of light and reduce visual quality. We adjusted the emitted light spectrum of LED backlight modules in LCDs and reduced the energy emission but maintained the luminance. The 661W photoreceptor cell line was used as the model system. We established a formula of the ocular energy exposure index (OEEI), which could be used as the indicator of LCD energy emission. Cell viability decreased and apoptosis increased significantly after exposure to LCDs with higher emitted energy. Cell damage occurred through the induction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms included activation of the NF-κB pathway and upregulation of the expression of proteins associated with inflammation and apoptosis. The effect was correlated with OEEI intensity. We demonstrated that LCD exposure-induced photoreceptor damage was correlated with LCD energy emission. LCDs with lower energy emission may, therefore, serve as suitable screens to prevent light-induced retinal damage and protect consumers’ eye health. View Full-Text
Keywords: photo-injury; liquid crystal display (LCD); light-emitting diodes (LED); blue light; light spectrum; photoreceptor; oxidative stress; NF-κB photo-injury; liquid crystal display (LCD); light-emitting diodes (LED); blue light; light spectrum; photoreceptor; oxidative stress; NF-κB
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Lin, C.-W.; Yang, C.-M.; Yang, C.-H. Effects of the Emitted Light Spectrum of Liquid Crystal Displays on Light-Induced Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Damage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2318.

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