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Open AccessArticle

A Composite Chitosan-Reinforced Scaffold Fails to Provide Osteochondral Regeneration

1
Applied and Translational Research (ATR) Center, IRCCS—Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Knee Joint Reconstruction Center—3rd Orthopedic Division, Humanitas Clinical Institute, 20089 Rozzano, Italy
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Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Rozzano, 20090 Milan, Italy
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Hip and Knee Replacement Department, IRCCS—Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Laboratory of Preclinical and Surgical Studies, IRCCS—Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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II Orthopedic and Traumatologic Clinic; IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council (ISTEC-CNR), 48018 Faenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092227
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
Several biomaterials have recently been developed to address the challenge of osteochondral regeneration. Among these, chitosan holds promises both for cartilage and bone healing. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the regeneration potential of a novel hybrid magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite (MgHA), collagen, chitosan-based scaffold, which was tested in a sheep model to ascertain its osteochondral regenerative potential, and in a rabbit model to further evaluate its ability to regenerate bone tissue. Macroscopic, microtomography, histology, histomorphometry, and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. In the sheep model, all analyses did not show significant differences compared to untreated defects (p > 0.05), with no evidence of cartilage and subchondral bone regeneration. In the rabbit model, this bone scaffold provided less ability to enhance tissue healing compared with a commercial bone scaffold. Moreover, persistence of scaffold material and absence of integration with connective tissue around the scaffolds were observed. These results raised some concerns about the osteochondral use of this chitosan composite scaffold, especially for the bone layer. Further studies are needed to explore the best formulation of chitosan-reinforced composites for osteochondral treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; osteochondral; bone; cartilage; failure; scaffold chitosan; osteochondral; bone; cartilage; failure; scaffold
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Roffi, A.; Kon, E.; Perdisa, F.; Fini, M.; Di Martino, A.; Parrilli, A.; Salamanna, F.; Sandri, M.; Sartori, M.; Sprio, S.; Tampieri, A.; Marcacci, M.; Filardo, G. A Composite Chitosan-Reinforced Scaffold Fails to Provide Osteochondral Regeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2227.

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