Next Article in Journal
Mel1c Mediated Monochromatic Light-Stimulated IGF-I Synthesis through the Intracellular Gαq/PKC/ERK Signaling Pathway
Next Article in Special Issue
The Potential Role of iNOS in Ovarian Cancer Progression and Chemoresistance
Previous Article in Journal
Empagliflozin Attenuates Myocardial Sodium and Calcium Dysregulation and Reverses Cardiac Remodeling in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nitric Oxide Reverses the Position of the Heart during Embryonic Development
Open AccessArticle

Hyperglycaemia-Induced Downregulation in Expression of nNOS Intramural Neurons of the Small Intestine in the Pig

1
Department of Clinical Physiology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego Str. 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego Str. 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071681
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Synthases: Regulation and Function)
Diabetic autonomic peripheral neuropathy (PN) involves a broad spectrum of organs. One of them is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of digestive complications are not yet fully understood. Digestion is controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS) within the wall of the GI tract. Enteric neurons exert regulatory effects due to the many biologically active substances secreted and released by enteric nervous system (ENS) structures. These include nitric oxide (NO), produced by the neural nitric oxide synthase enzyme (nNOS). It is a very important inhibitory factor, necessary for smooth muscle relaxation. Moreover, it was noted that nitrergic innervation can undergo adaptive changes during pathological processes. Additionally, nitrergic neurons function may be regulated through the synthesis of other active neuropeptides. Therefore, in the present study, using the immunofluorescence technique, we first examined the influence of hyperglycemia on the NOS- containing neurons in the porcine small intestine and secondly the co-localization of nNOS with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL) and substance P (SP) in all plexuses studied. Following chronic hyperglycaemia, we observed a reduction in the number of the NOS-positive neurons in all intestinal segments studied, as well as an increased in investigated substances in nNOS positive neurons. This observation confirmed that diabetic hyperglycaemia can cause changes in the neurochemical characteristics of enteric neurons, which can lead to numerous disturbances in gastrointestinal tract functions. Moreover, can be the basis of an elaboration of these peptides analogues utilized as therapeutic agents in the treatment of GI complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperglycaemia; nitric oxide synthase; enteric nervous system; pig hyperglycaemia; nitric oxide synthase; enteric nervous system; pig
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bulc, M.; Palus, K.; Dąbrowski, M.; Całka, J. Hyperglycaemia-Induced Downregulation in Expression of nNOS Intramural Neurons of the Small Intestine in the Pig. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1681.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop