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Open AccessArticle

Neuroprotective Effects of Thymol, a Dietary Monoterpene Against Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

1
Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, P.O. Box 17666, UAE
2
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, P.O. Box 17666, UAE
3
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, P.O. Box 17666, UAE
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071538
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Neuroprotection)
Parkinson’s disease (PD), a multifactorial movement disorder that involves progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal system affecting the movement ability of the patient. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation both are shown to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenol in rotenone (ROT)-induced neurodegeneration in rats that precisely mimics PD in humans. Male Wistar rats were injected ROT at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks, to induce PD. Thymol was co-administered for 4 weeks at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, 30 min prior to ROT injection. The markers of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, oxidative stress and inflammation were estimated using biochemical assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting and immunocytochemistry. ROT challenge increased the oxidative stress markers, inflammatory enzymes and cytokines as well as caused significant damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of the brain. Thymol treatment in ROT challenged rats appears to significantly attenuate dopaminergic neuronal loss, oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study showed protective effects of thymol in ROT-induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration mediated by preservation of endogenous antioxidant defense networks and attenuation of inflammatory mediators including cytokines and enzymes. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurodegeneration; oxidative injury; Parkinson’s disease; terpenes, rotenone; thymol neurodegeneration; oxidative injury; Parkinson’s disease; terpenes, rotenone; thymol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Javed, H.; Azimullah, S.; Meeran, M.N.; Ansari, S.A.; Ojha, S. Neuroprotective Effects of Thymol, a Dietary Monoterpene Against Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1538.

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