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Molecular Players of EF-hand Containing Calcium Signaling Event in Plants

1
Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, Nizwa 616, Oman
2
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
3
Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Mycology and Plant Survey Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, ARC, Giza 12511, Egypt
5
Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agriculture Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061476
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
Ca2+ is a universal second messenger that plays a pivotal role in diverse signaling mechanisms in almost all life forms. Since the evolution of life from an aquatic to a terrestrial environment, Ca2+ signaling systems have expanded and diversified enormously. Although there are several Ca2+ sensing molecules found in a cell, EF-hand containing proteins play a principal role in calcium signaling event in plants. The major EF-hand containing proteins are calmodulins (CaMs), calmodulin like proteins (CMLs), calcineurin B-like (CBL) and calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs/CPKs). CaMs and CPKs contain calcium binding conserved D-x-D motifs in their EF-hands (one motif in each EF-hand) whereas CMLs contain a D-x3-D motif in the first and second EF-hands that bind the calcium ion. Calcium signaling proteins form a complex interactome network with their target proteins. The CMLs are the most primitive calcium binding proteins. During the course of evolution, CMLs are evolved into CaMs and subsequently the CaMs appear to have merged with protein kinase molecules to give rise to calcium dependent protein kinases with distinct and multiple new functions. Ca2+ signaling molecules have evolved in a lineage specific manner with several of the calcium signaling genes being lost in the monocot lineage. View Full-Text
Keywords: calmodulin; calmodulin-likes; calcium dependent protein kinases; calcineurin B-like; EF-hands calmodulin; calmodulin-likes; calcium dependent protein kinases; calcineurin B-like; EF-hands
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohanta, T.K.; Yadav, D.; Khan, A.L.; Hashem, A.; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Al-Harrasi, A. Molecular Players of EF-hand Containing Calcium Signaling Event in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1476. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061476

AMA Style

Mohanta TK, Yadav D, Khan AL, Hashem A, Abd_Allah EF, Al-Harrasi A. Molecular Players of EF-hand Containing Calcium Signaling Event in Plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(6):1476. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061476

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohanta, Tapan K., Dhananjay Yadav, Abdul L. Khan, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed F. Abd_Allah, and Ahmed Al-Harrasi. 2019. "Molecular Players of EF-hand Containing Calcium Signaling Event in Plants" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 6: 1476. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061476

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