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Degradation of Mitochondria and Oxidative Stress as the Main Mechanism of Toxicity of Pristine Graphene on U87 Glioblastoma Cells and Tumors and HS-5 Cells

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Department of Animal Nutrition and Biotechnology, Faculty of Animal Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland
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Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Groennegaardsvej 3, 1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030650
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Due to the development of nanotechnologies, graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted immense scientific interest owing to their extraordinary properties. Graphene can be used in many fields, including biomedicine. To date, little is known about the impact graphene may have on human health in the case of intentional exposure. The present study was carried out on U87 glioma cells and non-cancer HS-5 cell lines as in vitro model and U87 tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane as in vivo model, on which the effects of pristine graphene platelets (GPs) were evaluated. The investigation consisted of structural analysis of GPs using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transmission infrared measurements, zeta potential measurements, evaluation of cell morphology, assessment of cell viability, investigation of reactive oxygen species production, and investigation of mitochondrial membrane potential. The toxicity of U87 glioma tumors was evaluated by calculating the weight and volume of tumors and performing analyses of the ultrastructure, histology, and protein expression. The in vitro results indicate that GPs have dose-dependent cytotoxicity via ROS overproduction and depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The mass and volume of tumors were reduced in vivo after injection of GPs. Additionally, the level of apoptotic and necrotic markers increased in GPs-treated tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: pristine graphene; oxidative stress; mitochondria; apoptosis pristine graphene; oxidative stress; mitochondria; apoptosis
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Jaworski, S.; Strojny, B.; Sawosz, E.; Wierzbicki, M.; Grodzik, M.; Kutwin, M.; Daniluk, K.; Chwalibog, A. Degradation of Mitochondria and Oxidative Stress as the Main Mechanism of Toxicity of Pristine Graphene on U87 Glioblastoma Cells and Tumors and HS-5 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 650.

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