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Oxidative Stress-Induced Pentraxin 3 Expression Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

1
School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, University of Ulsan, 93 Daehak-ro, Ulsan 44610, Korea
2
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Department of Ophthalmology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan 44033, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20236028
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 23 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
(1) Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is closely related with retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell dysfunction. Although the exact pathogenesis of AMD remains largely unknown, oxidative stress-induced RPE damage is believed to be one of the primary causes. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) expression and its biological functions during oxidative injury. (2) Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed mRNA and protein levels of PTX3 in the presence or absence of oxidative stress inducer, sodium iodate (NaIO3), in primary human H-RPE and ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, we assessed cell death, antioxidant enzyme expression, and AMD-associated gene expression to determine the biological functions of PTX3 under oxidative stress. (3) Results: NaIO3 increased PTX3 expression, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in H-RPE and ARPE-19 cells. We found phosphorylated Akt, a downstream target of the PI3 kinase pathway, phosphor- mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (ERK), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were predominantly induced by NaIO3. NaIO3-induced PTX3 expression was decreased in the presence of phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase inhibitors, ERK inhibitors, and ROS scavengers. Furthermore, NaIO3 enhanced mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-reductase (GSR) in the control shRNA expressing RPE cells, but not in hPTX3 shRNA expressing RPE cells. Interestingly, NaIO3 did not induce mRNA expression of AMD marker genes, such as complement factor I (CFI), complement factor H (CFH), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in hPTX3 shRNA expressing RPE cells. 4) Conclusions: These results suggest that PTX3 accelerates RPE cell death and might be involved in AMD development in the presence of oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: pentraxin 3; human retinal pigment epithelial cells; age-related macular degeneration; oxidative stress; sodium iodate antioxidants pentraxin 3; human retinal pigment epithelial cells; age-related macular degeneration; oxidative stress; sodium iodate antioxidants
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Hwang, N.; Kwon, M.-Y.; Woo, J.M.; Chung, S.W. Oxidative Stress-Induced Pentraxin 3 Expression Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6028.

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