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Open AccessReview

Recent Advances in Mono- and Combined Stem Cell Therapies of Stroke in Animal Models and Humans

1
Center of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 20049 Craiova, Romania
2
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 20049 Craiova, Romania
3
Chair of Vascular Neurology, Dementia and Ageing Research, Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen, 45122 Essen, Germany
4
Department of Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 20049 Craiova, Romania
5
Experimental Research Centre for Normal and Pathological Aging, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 20049 Craiova, Romania
6
Griffith University Menzies Health Institute of Queensland, Gold Coast Campus and Queensland Eye Institute, Brisbane QLD 4000, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20236029
Received: 1 November 2019 / Revised: 24 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Brain Vascular Diseases Management and Therapy)
Following the failure of acute neuroprotection therapies, major efforts are currently made worldwide to promote neurological recovery and brain plasticity in the subacute and post-acute phases of stroke. Currently, there is hope that stroke recovery might be promoted by cell-based therapies. The field of stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia has made significant progress in the last five years. A variety of stem cells have been tested in animal models and humans including adipose stem cells, human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells, human amnion epithelial cells, human placenta amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells, adult human pluripotent-like olfactory stem cells, human bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells, electrically-stimulated human neuronal progenitor cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of human origin. Combination therapies in animal models include a mix of two or more therapeutic factors consisting of bone marrow stromal cells, exercise and thyroid hormones, endothelial progenitor cells overexpressing the chemokine CXCL12. Mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of transplanted cells include the “bystander” effects, paracrine mechanisms, or extracellular vesicles-mediated restorative effects. Mitochondria transfer also appears to be a powerful strategy for regenerative processes. Studies in humans are currently limited to a small number of studies using autologous stem cells mainly aimed to assess tolerability and side-effects of human stem cells in the clinic. View Full-Text
Keywords: human stem cells; rodent stem cells; cerebral ischemia; aging; restorative therapies human stem cells; rodent stem cells; cerebral ischemia; aging; restorative therapies
MDPI and ACS Style

Surugiu, R.; Olaru, A.; Hermann, D.M.; Glavan, D.; Catalin, B.; Popa-Wagner, A. Recent Advances in Mono- and Combined Stem Cell Therapies of Stroke in Animal Models and Humans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6029.

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