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Open AccessArticle

The Regional Specific Alterations in BBB Permeability are Relevant to the Differential Responses of 67-kDa LR Expression in Endothelial Cells and Astrocytes Following Status Epilepticus

by Hana Park 1,2 and Tae-Cheon Kang 1,2,*
1
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
2
Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20236025
Received: 15 November 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epilepsy: From Molecular Mechanisms to Targeted Therapies 2.0)
Status epilepticus (a prolonged seizure activity, SE) differently affects vasogenic edema formation and dystrophin-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expressions between the rat hippocampus and the piriform cortex (PC). In the present study, we explored whether the 67-kDa laminin receptor (LR) expression was relevant to the regional specific susceptibility of vasogenic edema at 3 days after SE. In spite of no difference in expression levels of 67-kDa LR, dystrophin, and AQP4 under physiological conditions, SE-induced serum extravasation was more severe in the PC than the hippocampus. Western blots demonstrated that SE reduced expression levels of 67-kDa LR, dystrophin, and AQP4 in the PC, but not in the hippocampus proper. Immunofluorescent studies revealed that SE increased 67-kDa LR expression in reactive CA1 astrocyte, but reduced it in the PC and the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus due to massive astroglial loss. Furthermore, SE decreased expressions of endothelial 67-kDa LR and SMI-71 (endothelial brain barrier antigen) in these regions. The 67-kDa LR neutralization evoked serum extravasation in these regions of normal animals without astroglial loss. Similar to SE, 67-kDa LR neutralization also reduced dystrophin-AQP4 expressions in the PC more than the total hippocampus. Furthermore, 67-kDa LR IgG infusion increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase, independent of phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes of 15 kDa (PEA15) activity. Co-treatment of U0126 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) alleviated vasogenic edema formation and the reduced dystrophin-AQP4 expressions induced by 67-kDa LR neutralization. The 67-kDa LR IgG infusion also increased the susceptibility to SE induction. Therefore, our findings suggested that the cellular specific alterations in 67-kDa LR expression might be involved in the severity of SE-induced vasogenic edema formation in regional specific manners, which might affect the susceptibility to SE induction. View Full-Text
Keywords: AQP4; dystrophin; ERK1/2; hippocampus; JNK; PEA15; piriform cortex; SMI-71; U0126; vasogenic edema AQP4; dystrophin; ERK1/2; hippocampus; JNK; PEA15; piriform cortex; SMI-71; U0126; vasogenic edema
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Park, H.; Kang, T.-C. The Regional Specific Alterations in BBB Permeability are Relevant to the Differential Responses of 67-kDa LR Expression in Endothelial Cells and Astrocytes Following Status Epilepticus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6025.

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