Next Article in Journal
Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis of Rice Seedlings after Seed Dressing with Paenibacillus yonginensis DCY84T and Silicon
Next Article in Special Issue
GaAs-Based InPBi Quantum Dots for High Efficiency Super-Luminescence Diodes
Previous Article in Journal
The Biological Bases of Group 2 Pulmonary Hypertension
Previous Article in Special Issue
Shielding of Hepatitis B Virus-Like Nanoparticle with Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline)
Review

Current Treatment Strategies and Nanoparticle-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

1
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
2
Division of Cardiology, National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, Okayama 701-1192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235885
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 23 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Materials and Methods)
There are three critical pathways for the pathogenesis and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): the prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2) (PGI2), nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin pathways. The current approved drugs targeting these three pathways, including prostacyclin (PGI2), phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, and endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs), have been shown to be effective, however, PAH remains a severe clinical condition and the long-term survival of patients with PAH is still suboptimal. The full therapeutic abilities of available drugs are reduced by medication, patient non-compliance, and side effects. Nanoparticles are expected to address these problems by providing a novel drug delivery approach for the treatment of PAH. Drug-loaded nanoparticles for local delivery can optimize the efficacy and minimize the adverse effects of drugs. Prostacyclin (PGI2) analogue, PDE5 inhibitors, ERA, pitavastatin, imatinib, rapamycin, fasudil, and oligonucleotides-loaded nanoparticles have been reported to be effective in animal PAH models and in vitro studies. However, the efficacy and safety of nanoparticle mediated-drug delivery systems for PAH treatment in humans are unknown and further clinical studies are required to clarify these points. View Full-Text
Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension; prostaglandin I2; nitric oxide; endothelin pulmonary arterial hypertension; prostaglandin I2; nitric oxide; endothelin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nakamura, K.; Akagi, S.; Ejiri, K.; Yoshida, M.; Miyoshi, T.; Toh, N.; Nakagawa, K.; Takaya, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Ito, H. Current Treatment Strategies and Nanoparticle-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5885. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235885

AMA Style

Nakamura K, Akagi S, Ejiri K, Yoshida M, Miyoshi T, Toh N, Nakagawa K, Takaya Y, Matsubara H, Ito H. Current Treatment Strategies and Nanoparticle-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(23):5885. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235885

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakamura, Kazufumi, Satoshi Akagi, Kentaro Ejiri, Masashi Yoshida, Toru Miyoshi, Norihisa Toh, Koji Nakagawa, Yoichi Takaya, Hiromi Matsubara, and Hiroshi Ito. 2019. "Current Treatment Strategies and Nanoparticle-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 23: 5885. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235885

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop