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Chloroplasts— Beyond Energy Capture and Carbon Fixation: Tuning of Photosynthesis in Response to Chilling Stress

1
College of Life Science and technology (State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources), Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China
2
Agriculture College, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China
3
Agriculture College, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205046
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 10 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
As organelles for photosynthesis in green plants, chloroplasts play a vital role in solar energy capture and carbon fixation. The maintenance of normal chloroplast physiological functions is essential for plant growth and development. Low temperature is an adverse environmental stress that affects crop productivity. Low temperature severely affects the growth and development of plants, especially photosynthesis. To date, many studies have reported that chloroplasts are not only just organelles of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts can also perceive chilling stress signals via membranes and photoreceptors, and they maintain their homeostasis and promote photosynthesis by regulating the state of lipid membranes, the abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins, the activity of enzymes, the redox state, and the balance of hormones and by releasing retrograde signals, thus improving plant resistance to low temperatures. This review focused on the potential functions of chloroplasts in fine tuning photosynthesis processes under low-temperature stress by perceiving stress signals, modulating the expression of photosynthesis-related genes, and scavenging excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chloroplasts to survive the adverse environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: chloroplast; chilling stress; regulatory response; photosynthesis; redox homeostasis; hormones chloroplast; chilling stress; regulatory response; photosynthesis; redox homeostasis; hormones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gan, P.; Liu, F.; Li, R.; Wang, S.; Luo, J. Chloroplasts— Beyond Energy Capture and Carbon Fixation: Tuning of Photosynthesis in Response to Chilling Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5046.

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