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Article

Shielding of Hepatitis B Virus-Like Nanoparticle with Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline)

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
4
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
5
Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
6
Biotechnology and Nanotechnology Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Persiaran MARDI-UPM, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194903
Received: 14 July 2019 / Revised: 29 August 2019 / Accepted: 29 August 2019 / Published: 3 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Materials and Methods)
Virus-like nanoparticles (VLNPs) have been studied extensively as nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells. However, VLNPs have intrinsic drawbacks, in particular, potential antigenicity and immunogenicity, which hamper their clinical applications. Thus, they can be eliminated easily and rapidly by host immune systems, rendering these nanoparticles ineffective for drug delivery. The aim of this study was to reduce the antigenicity of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) VLNPs by shielding them with a hydrophilic polymer, poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx). In the present study, an amine-functionalized PEtOx (PEtOx-NH2) was synthesized using the living cationic ring-opening polymerization (CROP) technique and covalently conjugated to HBcAg VLNPs via carboxyl groups. The PEtOx-conjugated HBcAg (PEtOx-HBcAg) VLNPs were characterized with dynamic light scattering and UV-visible spectroscopy. The colloidal stability study indicated that both HBcAg and PEtOx-HBcAg VLNPs maintained their particle size in Tris-buffered saline (TBS) at human body temperature (37 °C) for at least five days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) demonstrated that the antigenicity of PEtOx-HBcAg VLNPs reduced significantly as compared with unconjugated HBcAg VLNPs. This novel conjugation approach provides a general platform for resolving the antigenicity of VLNPs, enabling them to be developed into a variety of nanovehicles for targeted drug delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus-like particle; polymer; conjugation; antigenicity; poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline); hepatitis B virus capsid virus-like particle; polymer; conjugation; antigenicity; poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline); hepatitis B virus capsid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fam, S.Y.; Chee, C.F.; Yong, C.Y.; Ho, K.L.; Mariatulqabtiah, A.R.; Lau, H.Y.; Tan, W.S. Shielding of Hepatitis B Virus-Like Nanoparticle with Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4903. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194903

AMA Style

Fam SY, Chee CF, Yong CY, Ho KL, Mariatulqabtiah AR, Lau HY, Tan WS. Shielding of Hepatitis B Virus-Like Nanoparticle with Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(19):4903. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194903

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fam, See Y., Chin F. Chee, Chean Y. Yong, Kok L. Ho, Abdul R. Mariatulqabtiah, Han Y. Lau, and Wen S. Tan 2019. "Shielding of Hepatitis B Virus-Like Nanoparticle with Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline)" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 19: 4903. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194903

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