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A Review of a Class of Emerging Contaminants: The Classification, Distribution, Intensity of Consumption, Synthesis Routes, Environmental Effects and Expectation of Pollution Abatement to Organophosphate Flame Retardants (OPFRs)

1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 3 and 1,2,*
1
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
2
The Moe Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
3
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2874; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122874
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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PDF [4769 KB, uploaded 13 June 2019]
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Abstract

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been detected in various environmental matrices and have been identified as emerging contaminants (EC). Given the adverse influence of OPFRs, many researchers have focused on the absorption, bioaccumulation, metabolism, and internal exposure processes of OPFRs in animals and humans. This paper first reviews the evolution of various types of flame retardants (FRs) and the environmental pollution of OPFRs, the different absorption pathways of OPFRs by animals and humans (such as inhalation, ingestion, skin absorption and absorption), and then summarizes the environmental impacts of OPFRs, including their biological toxicity, bioaccumulation, persistence, migration, endocrine disruption and carcinogenicity. Based on limited available data and results, this study also summarizes the bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential of OPFRs in different types of biological and food nets. In addition, a new governance idea for the replacement of existing OPFRs from the source is proposed, seeking environmentally friendly alternatives to OPFRs in order to provide new ideas and theoretical guidance for the removal of OPFRs. View Full-Text
Keywords: organophosphate flame retardants; distribution; environmental impacts; synthetic routes; pollution abatement organophosphate flame retardants; distribution; environmental impacts; synthetic routes; pollution abatement
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yang, J.; Zhao, Y.; Li, M.; Du, M.; Li, X.; Li, Y. A Review of a Class of Emerging Contaminants: The Classification, Distribution, Intensity of Consumption, Synthesis Routes, Environmental Effects and Expectation of Pollution Abatement to Organophosphate Flame Retardants (OPFRs). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2874.

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