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Theoretical Analysis for Wireless Magnetothermal Deep Brain Stimulation Using Commercial Nanoparticles

Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, School of Integrated Technology, 123 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61005, Korea
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122873
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Soft Materials)
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Abstract

A wireless magnetothermal stimulation (WMS) is suggested as a fast, tetherless, and implanted device-free stimulation method using low-radio frequency (100 kHz to 1 MHz) alternating magnetic fields (AMF). As magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can transduce alternating magnetic fields into heat, they are targeted to a region of the brain expressing the temperature-sensitive ion channel (TRPV1). The local temperature of the targeted area is increased up to 44 °C to open the TRPV1 channels and cause an influx of Ca2+ sensitive promoter, which can activate individual neurons inside the brain. The WMS has initially succeeded in showing the potential of thermomagnetics for the remote control of neural cell activity with MNPs that are internally targeted to the brain. In this paper, by using the steady-state temperature rise defined by Fourier’s law, the bio-heat equation, and COMSOL Multiphysics software, we investigate most of the basic parameters such as the specific loss power (SLP) of MNPs, the injection volume of magnetic fluid, stimulation and cooling times, and cytotoxic effects at high temperatures (43–44 °C) to provide a realizable design guideline for WMS. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless magnetothermal stimulation; deep brain stimulation; magnetic particles wireless magnetothermal stimulation; deep brain stimulation; magnetic particles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Le, T.-A.; Bui, M.P.; Yoon, J. Theoretical Analysis for Wireless Magnetothermal Deep Brain Stimulation Using Commercial Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2873.

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