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Review

General Pathways of Pain Sensation and the Major Neurotransmitters Involved in Pain Regulation

1
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082164
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling: From Past to Future)
Pain has been considered as a concept of sensation that we feel as a reaction to the stimulus of our surrounding, putting us in harm’s way and acting as a form of defense mechanism that our body has permanently installed into its system. However, pain leads to a huge chunk of finances within the healthcare system with continuous rehabilitation of patients with adverse pain sensations, which might reduce not only their quality of life but also their productivity at work setting back the pace of our economy. It may not look like a huge deal but factor in pain as an issue for majority of us, it becomes an economical burden. Although pain has been researched into and understood by numerous researches, from its definition, mechanism of action to its inhibition in hopes of finding an absolute solution for victims of pain, the pathways of pain sensation, neurotransmitters involved in producing such a sensation are not comprehensively reviewed. Therefore, this review article aims to put in place a thorough understanding of major pain conditions that we experience—nociceptive, inflammatory and physiologically dysfunction, such as neuropathic pain and its modulation and feedback systems. Moreover, the complete mechanism of conduction is compiled within this article, elucidating understandings from various researches and breakthroughs. View Full-Text
Keywords: pain sensitization; neurotransmitters; nociceptive; inflammatory; neuropathic; presynaptic and postsynaptic; pain transmission; neurons; synaptic transmission pain sensitization; neurotransmitters; nociceptive; inflammatory; neuropathic; presynaptic and postsynaptic; pain transmission; neurons; synaptic transmission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yam, M.F.; Loh, Y.C.; Tan, C.S.; Khadijah Adam, S.; Abdul Manan, N.; Basir, R. General Pathways of Pain Sensation and the Major Neurotransmitters Involved in Pain Regulation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2164. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082164

AMA Style

Yam MF, Loh YC, Tan CS, Khadijah Adam S, Abdul Manan N, Basir R. General Pathways of Pain Sensation and the Major Neurotransmitters Involved in Pain Regulation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(8):2164. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082164

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yam, Mun Fei, Yean Chun Loh, Chu Shan Tan, Siti Khadijah Adam, Nizar Abdul Manan, and Rusliza Basir. 2018. "General Pathways of Pain Sensation and the Major Neurotransmitters Involved in Pain Regulation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 8: 2164. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082164

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