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Open AccessArticle

Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy from Recurrent Intermittent Hypoxia Is Not Dependent on Resolution with Room Air or Oxygen, in Neonatal Rats

1
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
2
Department of Ophthalmology; State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
3
Departments of Pediatrics & Ophthalmology, State University of New York Eye Institute, New York, NY 10062, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051337
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)
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Abstract

Preterm infants often experience intermittent hypoxia (IH) with resolution in room air (RA) or hyperoxia (Hx) between events. Hypoxia is a major inducer of vascular endothelial growth factor, which plays a key role in normal and aberrant retinal angiogenesis. This study tested the hypothesis that neonatal IH which resolved with RA is less injurious to the immature retina than IH resolved by Hx between events. Newborn rats were exposed to: (1) Hx (50% O2) with brief hypoxia (12% O2); (2) RA with 12% O2; (3) Hx with RA; (4) Hx only; or (5) RA only, from P0 to P14. Pups were examined at P14 or placed in RA until P21. Retinal vascular and astrocyte integrity; retinal layer thickness; ocular and systemic biomarkers of angiogenesis; and somatic growth were determined at P14 and P21. All IH paradigms resulted in significant retinal vascular defects, disturbances in retinal astrocyte template, retinal thickening, and photoreceptor damage concurrent with elevations in angiogenesis biomarkers. These data suggest that the susceptibility of the immature retina to changes in oxygen render no differences in the outcomes between RA or O2 resolution. Interventions and initiatives to curtail O2 variations should remain a high priority to prevent severe retinopathy. View Full-Text
Keywords: angiogenesis; astrocytes; insulin-like growth factor-I; intermittent hypoxia; oxygen-induced retinopathy; retina; vascular endothelial growth factor angiogenesis; astrocytes; insulin-like growth factor-I; intermittent hypoxia; oxygen-induced retinopathy; retina; vascular endothelial growth factor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beharry, K.D.; Cai, C.L.; Skelton, J.; Siddiqui, F.; D’Agrosa, C.; Calo, J.; Valencia, G.B.; Aranda, J.V. Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy from Recurrent Intermittent Hypoxia Is Not Dependent on Resolution with Room Air or Oxygen, in Neonatal Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1337.

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