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Sinomenine Hydrochloride Inhibits the Metastasis of Human Glioblastoma Cells by Suppressing the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 and Reversing the Endogenous and Exogenous Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

Beijing Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Basic Research on Prevention and Treatment of Major Diseases, Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100000, China
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030844
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT))
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Abstract

As shown in our previous study, sinomenine hydrochloride (SH), the major bioactive alkaloid isolated from Sinomenium acutum Rehd. et Wils. (Fam. Menispermaceae), initiates the autophagy-mediated death of human glioblastoma cells by generating reactive oxygen species and activating the autophagy-lysosome pathway. However, its effects on the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, human glioblastoma U87 and SF767 cells were treated with SH (0.125 and 0.25 mM) for 24 h, and cell migration and invasion were assessed using scratch wound healing, migration and invasion assays. SH promoted G0/G1 phase arrest, inhibited the migration and invasion of the two cell lines, suppressed the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/-9, triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, reversed the exogenous epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by the inflammatory microenvironment and the endogenous EMT. Additionally, NFκB p65 overexpression blocked the SH-mediated inhibitory effects on MMP-2/-9 expression and cell invasion. SH-induced autophagy was reduced in CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) or autophagy-related 5 (ATG5)-silenced human glioblastoma cells and cells treated with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) or 3-methyladenine (3-MA), as shown by the decreased levels of the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B)-II and autophagic vacuoles (AVs) stained with monodansylcadaverine (MDC), respectively. Moreover, knockdown of CHOP or ATG5 and treatment with 4-PBA or 3-MA abolished the SH-mediated inhibition of mesenchymal markers (vimentin, Snail and Slug) expression and cell invasion, respectively. Importantly, SH also regulated the above related pathways in nude mice. Based on these findings, SH inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest, and attenuated the metastasis of U87 and SF767 cells by suppressing MMP-2/-9 expression and reversing the endogenous and exogenous EMT in vitro and/or in vivo. Thus, SH might be a new potential anti-metastasis agent for the treatment of human glioblastoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; sinomenine hydrochloride; metastasis; matrix metalloproteinase; epithelial-mesenchymal transition glioblastoma; sinomenine hydrochloride; metastasis; matrix metalloproteinase; epithelial-mesenchymal transition
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Jiang, Y.; Jiao, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, M.; Wang, Z.; Li, Y.; Li, T.; Zhao, X.; Wang, D. Sinomenine Hydrochloride Inhibits the Metastasis of Human Glioblastoma Cells by Suppressing the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 and Reversing the Endogenous and Exogenous Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 844.

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