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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030816

Anthocyanin-Rich Extract from Red Chinese Cabbage Alleviates Vascular Inflammation in Endothelial Cells and Apo E−/− Mice

1
Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, 266 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 35015, Korea
2
Preclinical Research Center, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon 35015, Korea
3
Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
4
Department of Horticulture, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this article.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
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Abstract

Anthocyanins, the most prevalent flavonoids in red/purple fruits and vegetables, are known to improve immune responses and reduce chronic disease risks. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of an anthocyanin-rich extract from red Chinese cabbage (ArCC) were shown based on its inhibitory effects in cultured endothelial cells and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. ArCC treatment suppressed monocyte adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated endothelial cells. This was validated by ArCC’s ability to downregulate the expression and transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules, determined by immunoblot and luciferase promoter assays, respectively. The regulation of adhesion molecules was accompanied by transcriptional inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, which restricted cytoplasmic localization as shown by immunocytochemistry. Administration of ArCC (150 or 300 mg/kg/day) inhibited aortic inflammation in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, as shown by in vivo imaging. Immunohistochemistry and plasma analysis showed that the aortas from these mice exhibited markedly lower leukocyte infiltration, reduced plaque formation, and lower concentrations of blood inflammatory cytokines than those observed in the control mice. The results suggest that the consumption of anthocyanin-rich red Chinese cabbage is closely correlated with lowering the risk of vascular inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanin-rich red Chinese cabbage; apolipoprotein E-deficient mice; in vivo imaging; vascular cellular adhesion molecule; vascular inflammation anthocyanin-rich red Chinese cabbage; apolipoprotein E-deficient mice; in vivo imaging; vascular cellular adhesion molecule; vascular inflammation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Joo, H.K.; Choi, S.; Lee, Y.R.; Lee, E.O.; Park, M.S.; Park, K.B.; Kim, C.-S.; Lim, Y.P.; Park, J.-T.; Jeon, B.H. Anthocyanin-Rich Extract from Red Chinese Cabbage Alleviates Vascular Inflammation in Endothelial Cells and Apo E−/− Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 816.

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