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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020412

Substrate Recognition and Specificity of Chitin Deacetylases and Related Family 4 Carbohydrate Esterases

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Institut Químic de Sarrià, Universitat Ramon Llull, 08017 Barcelona, Spain
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Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Recognition of Carbohydrates)
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Abstract

Carbohydrate esterases family 4 (CE4 enzymes) includes chitin and peptidoglycan deacetylases, acetylxylan esterases, and poly-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases that act on structural polysaccharides, altering their physicochemical properties, and participating in diverse biological functions. Chitin and peptidoglycan deacetylases are not only involved in cell wall morphogenesis and remodeling in fungi and bacteria, but they are also used by pathogenic microorganisms to evade host defense mechanisms. Likewise, biofilm formation in bacteria requires partial deacetylation of extracellular polysaccharides mediated by poly-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases. Such biological functions make these enzymes attractive targets for drug design against pathogenic fungi and bacteria. On the other side, acetylxylan esterases deacetylate plant cell wall complex xylans to make them accessible to hydrolases, making them attractive biocatalysts for biomass utilization. CE4 family members are metal-dependent hydrolases. They are highly specific for their particular substrates, and show diverse modes of action, exhibiting either processive, multiple attack, or patterned deacetylation mechanisms. However, the determinants of substrate specificity remain poorly understood. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, activity, and specificity of CE4 enzymes, focusing on chitin deacetylases and related enzymes active on N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligo and polysaccharides. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitin deacetylases; carbohydrate esterases; chitosan; peptidoglycan; chitooligosaccharides; structure; substrate specificity; deacetylation pattern chitin deacetylases; carbohydrate esterases; chitosan; peptidoglycan; chitooligosaccharides; structure; substrate specificity; deacetylation pattern
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Aragunde, H.; Biarnés, X.; Planas, A. Substrate Recognition and Specificity of Chitin Deacetylases and Related Family 4 Carbohydrate Esterases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 412.

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