Next Article in Journal
Proteomic Analysis of Plasma Membrane Proteins of Antler Stem Cells Using Label-Free LC–MS/MS
Next Article in Special Issue
The Two-Faced Cytokine IL-6 in Host Defense and Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
Adipose Stem Cell Translational Applications: From Bench-to-Bedside
Previous Article in Special Issue
Targeting Cytokines as Evolving Treatment Strategies in Chronic Inflammatory Airway Diseases
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Theoretical Studies on the Engagement of Interleukin 18 in the Immuno-Inflammatory Processes Underlying Atherosclerosis

1
Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznan, Poland
2
Institute of Computing Science, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 2, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
3
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12/14, 61-704 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113476
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Interleukins in Health and Disease)
  |  
PDF [3940 KB, uploaded 5 November 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is one of the pro-inflammatory cytokines expressed by macrophages, suggesting that it plays important physiological and immunological functions, among the others: stimulation of natural killers (NKs) and T cells to interferon gamma (IFN- γ ) synthesis. IL-18 was originally identified as interferon gamma inducing factor and now it is recognized as multifunctional cytokine, which has a role in regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, in order to investigate IL-18 contribution to the immuno-inflammatory processes underlying atherosclerosis, a systems approach has been used in our studies. For this purpose, a model of the studied phenomenon, including selected pathways, based on the Petri-net theory, has been created and then analyzed. Two pathways of IL-18 synthesis have been distinguished: caspase 1-dependent pathway and caspase 1-independent pathway. The analysis based on t-invariants allowed for determining interesting dependencies between IL-18 and different types of macrophages: M1 are involved in positive regulation of IL-18, while M2 are involved in negative regulation of IL-18. Moreover, the obtained results showed that IL-18 is produced more often via caspase 1-independent pathway than caspase 1-dependent pathway. Furthermore, we found that this last pathway may be associated with caspase 8 action. View Full-Text
Keywords: interleukin 18; macrophages; atherosclerosis; modeling; Petri nets; t-invariants interleukin 18; macrophages; atherosclerosis; modeling; Petri nets; t-invariants
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Formanowicz, D.; Gutowska, K.; Formanowicz, P. Theoretical Studies on the Engagement of Interleukin 18 in the Immuno-Inflammatory Processes Underlying Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3476.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top