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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1554;

From Variation of Influenza Viral Proteins to Vaccine Development

Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Georgia State University Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics are one of the most important global public health concerns and are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Influenza viruses can evolve through antigen drift and shift to overcome the barriers of human immunity, leading to host adaption and transmission. Mechanisms underlying this viral evolution are gradually being elucidated. Vaccination is an effective method for the prevention of influenza virus infection. However, the emergence of novel viruses, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), the avian influenza A virus (H7N9), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI H5N1), that have infected human populations frequently in recent years reveals the tremendous challenges to the current influenza vaccine strategy. A better vaccine that provides protection against a wide spectrum of various influenza viruses and long-lasting immunity is urgently required. Here, we review the evolutionary changes of several important influenza proteins and the influence of these changes on viral antigenicity, host adaption, and viral pathogenicity. Furthermore, we discuss the development of a potent universal influenza vaccine based on this knowledge. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza virus; antigenic drift and shift; universal influenza vaccine influenza virus; antigenic drift and shift; universal influenza vaccine

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhu, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, B.-Z. From Variation of Influenza Viral Proteins to Vaccine Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1554.

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