His-tag technology was applied for biosensing purposes involving multi-redox center proteins (MRPs). An overview is presented on various surfaces ranging from flat to spherical and modified with linker molecules with nitrile-tri-acetic acid (NTA) terminal groups to bind his-tagged proteins in a strict orientation. The bound proteins are submitted to in situ
dialysis in the presence of lipid micelles to form a so-called protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM). MRPs, such as the cytochrome c oxidase (Cc
O) from R. sphaeroides
and P. denitrificans
, as well as photosynthetic reactions centers (RCs) from R. sphaeroides
, were thus investigated. Electrochemical and surface-sensitive optical techniques, such as surface plasmon resonance, surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence, surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS), were employed in the case of the ptBLM structure on flat surfaces. Spherical particles ranging from µm size agarose gel beads to nm size nanoparticles modified in a similar fashion were called proteo-lipobeads (PLBs). The particles were investigated by laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSM) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Electron and proton transfer through the proteins were demonstrated to take place, which was strongly affected by the membrane potential. MRPs can thus be used for biosensing purposes under quasi-physiological conditions.
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