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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 1968;

Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

Departamento de Biotecnología y Ciencias Alimentarias, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, 85000 Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, México
Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora, México
Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Estatal de Sonora, Unidad Académica Hermosillo, Ley Federal del Trabajo s/n, 83100 Hermosillo, Sonora, México
Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado en Alimentos, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora, México
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Laura Colombo, Laura Di Renzo and Rafat A. Siddiqui
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tocopherols and Tocotrienols: Metabolism and Properties)
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In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols), the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils. View Full-Text
Keywords: tocopherols; antioxidant; fish oil; muscle; lipid oxidation tocopherols; antioxidant; fish oil; muscle; lipid oxidation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Suárez-Jiménez, G.M.; López-Saiz, C.M.; Ramírez-Guerra, H.E.; Ezquerra-Brauer, J.M.; Ruiz-Cruz, S.; Torres-Arreola, W. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1968.

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