Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 11 (November 2011) , Pages 7286-8315

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-68
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Coenzyme Q10 Ameliorates Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced Cell Death Through Inhibition of Mitochondrial Intrinsic Cell Death Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8302-8315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118302
Received: 23 August 2011 / Revised: 8 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 November 2011 / Published: 24 November 2011
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3936 | PDF Full-text (1994 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultraviolet B (UVB) induces cell death by increasing free radical production, activating apoptotic cell death pathways and depolarizing mitochondrial membrane potential. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential cofactor in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, serves as a potent antioxidant in the mitochondria. The aim [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet B (UVB) induces cell death by increasing free radical production, activating apoptotic cell death pathways and depolarizing mitochondrial membrane potential. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential cofactor in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, serves as a potent antioxidant in the mitochondria. The aim of the present study is to establish whether CoQ10 is capable of protecting neuronal cells against UVB-induced damage. Murine hippocampal HT22 cells were treated with 0.01, 0.1 or 1 µM of CoQ10 3 or 24 h prior to the cells being exposed to UVB irradiation. The CoQ10 concentrations were maintained during irradiation and 24 h post-UVB. Cell viability was assessed by counting viable cells and MTT conversion assay. Superoxide production and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured using fluorescent probes. Levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were detected using immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. The results showed that UVB irradiation decreased cell viability and such damaging effect was associated with increased superoxide production, mitochondrial depolarization, and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Treatment with CoQ10 at three different concentrations started 24 h before UVB exposure significantly increased the cell viability. The protective effect of CoQ10 was associated with reduction in superoxide production, normalization of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. It is concluded that the neuroprotective effect of CoQ10 results from inhibiting oxidative stress and blocking caspase-3 dependent cell death pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Induced Cell Death)
Open AccessReview
Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology in Retinopathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8288-8301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118288
Received: 3 November 2011 / Revised: 21 November 2011 / Accepted: 21 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3829 | PDF Full-text (474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoparticles are nanometer-scaled particles, and can be utilized in the form of nanocapsules, nanoconjugates, or nanoparticles themselves for the treatment of retinopathy, including angiogensis-related blindness, retinal degeneration, and uveitis. They are thought to improve the bioavailability in the retina and the permeability of [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles are nanometer-scaled particles, and can be utilized in the form of nanocapsules, nanoconjugates, or nanoparticles themselves for the treatment of retinopathy, including angiogensis-related blindness, retinal degeneration, and uveitis. They are thought to improve the bioavailability in the retina and the permeability of therapeutic molecules across the barriers of the eye, such as the cornea, conjunctiva, and especially, blood-retinal barriers (BRBs). However, consisting of multiple neuronal cells, the retina can be the target of neuronal toxicity of nanoparticles, in common with the central and peripheral nervous system. Furthermore, the ability of nanoparticles to pass through the BRBs might increase the possibility of toxicity, simultaneously promoting distribution in the retinal layers. In this regard, we discussed nanotechnology and nanotoxicology in the treatment of retinopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessReview
Active Protein Aggregates Produced in Escherichia coli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8275-8287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118275
Received: 12 October 2011 / Revised: 11 November 2011 / Accepted: 11 November 2011 / Published: 22 November 2011
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3510 | PDF Full-text (557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since recombinant proteins are widely used in industry and in research, the need for their low-cost production is increasing. Escherichia coli is one of the best known and most often used host organisms for economical protein production. However, upon over-expression, protein aggregates called [...] Read more.
Since recombinant proteins are widely used in industry and in research, the need for their low-cost production is increasing. Escherichia coli is one of the best known and most often used host organisms for economical protein production. However, upon over-expression, protein aggregates called inclusion bodies (IBs) are often formed. Until recently IBs formation represented a bottleneck in protein production as they were considered as deposits of inactive proteins. However, recent studies show that by choosing the appropriate host strain and designing an optimal production process, IBs composed from properly folded and biologically active recombinant proteins can be prepared. Such active protein particles can be further used for the isolation of pure proteins or as whole active protein particles in various biomedical and other applications. Therefore interest in understanding the mechanisms of their formation as well as their properties is increasing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Aggregation)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Different Force Fields and Temperatures on the Structural Character of Abeta (12–28) Peptide in Aqueous Solution
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8259-8274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118259
Received: 22 July 2011 / Revised: 12 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3066 | PDF Full-text (717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of different force fields and temperatures on the structural character of Aβ (12–28) peptide in aqueous solution. Moreover, the structural character of Aβ (12–28) peptide is compared with other amyloid peptides (such as [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of different force fields and temperatures on the structural character of Aβ (12–28) peptide in aqueous solution. Moreover, the structural character of Aβ (12–28) peptide is compared with other amyloid peptides (such as H1 and α-syn12 peptide). The two independent temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics (T-REMD) simulations were completed by using two different models (OPLS-AA/TIP4P and GROMOS 43A1/SPC). We compared the models by analyzing the distributions of backbone dihedral angles, the secondary structure propensity, the free energy surface and the formation of β-hairpin. The results show that the mostly populated conformation state is random coil for both models. The population of β-hairpin is below 8 percent for both models. However, the peptide modeled by GROMOS 43A1 form β-hairpin with turn located at residues F19-E22, while the peptide modeled by OPLS-AA form β-hairpin with turn located at residues L17-F20. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomolecular Simulation)
Open AccessArticle
Removal of Mercury by Foam Fractionation Using Surfactin, a Biosurfactant
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8245-8258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118245
Received: 11 October 2011 / Revised: 4 November 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4680 | PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The separation of mercury ions from artificially contaminated water by the foam fractionation process using a biosurfactant (surfactin) and chemical surfactants (SDS and Tween-80) was investigated in this study. Parameters such as surfactant and mercury concentration, pH, foam volume, and digestion time were [...] Read more.
The separation of mercury ions from artificially contaminated water by the foam fractionation process using a biosurfactant (surfactin) and chemical surfactants (SDS and Tween-80) was investigated in this study. Parameters such as surfactant and mercury concentration, pH, foam volume, and digestion time were varied and their effects on the efficiency of mercury removal were investigated. The recovery efficiency of mercury ions was highly sensitive to the concentration of the surfactant. The highest mercury ion recovery by surfactin was obtained using a surfactin concentration of 10 × CMC, while recovery using SDS required < 10 × CMC and Tween-80 >10 × CMC. However, the enrichment of mercury ions in the foam was superior with surfactin, the mercury enrichment value corresponding to the highest metal recovery (10.4%) by surfactin being 1.53. Dilute solutions (2-mg L−1 Hg2+) resulted in better separation (36.4%), while concentrated solutions (100 mg L−1) enabled only a 2.3% recovery using surfactin. An increase in the digestion time of the metal solution with surfactin yielded better separation as compared with a freshly-prepared solution, and an increase in the airflow rate increased bubble production, resulting in higher metal recovery but low enrichment. Basic solutions yielded higher mercury separation as compared with acidic solutions due to the precipitation of surfactin under acidic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry 2011)
Open AccessReview
Cell-Biomaterial Mechanical Interaction in the Framework of Tissue Engineering: Insights, Computational Modeling and Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8217-8244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118217
Received: 17 September 2011 / Revised: 19 October 2011 / Accepted: 2 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4095 | PDF Full-text (4133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tissue engineering is an emerging field of research which combines the use of cell-seeded biomaterials both in vitro and/or in vivo with the aim of promoting new tissue formation or regeneration. In this context, how cells colonize and interact with the biomaterial is [...] Read more.
Tissue engineering is an emerging field of research which combines the use of cell-seeded biomaterials both in vitro and/or in vivo with the aim of promoting new tissue formation or regeneration. In this context, how cells colonize and interact with the biomaterial is critical in order to get a functional tissue engineering product. Cell-biomaterial interaction is referred to here as the phenomenon involved in adherent cells attachment to the biomaterial surface, and their related cell functions such as growth, differentiation, migration or apoptosis. This process is inherently complex in nature involving many physico-chemical events which take place at different scales ranging from molecular to cell body (organelle) levels. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the mechanical environment at the cell-biomaterial location may play an important role in the subsequent cell function, which remains to be elucidated. In this paper, the state-of-the-art research in the physics and mechanics of cell-biomaterial interaction is reviewed with an emphasis on focal adhesions. The paper is focused on the different models developed at different scales available to simulate certain features of cell-biomaterial interaction. A proper understanding of cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the development of predictive models in this sense, may add some light in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Programmable Materials for Mechanobiology)
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Bio-Activity Evaluation of Scutellarein as a Potent Agent for the Therapy of Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8208-8216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118208
Received: 28 June 2011 / Revised: 6 October 2011 / Accepted: 1 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3984 | PDF Full-text (143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scutellarein, the main metabolite of scutellarin in vivo, has relatively better solubility, bioavailability and bio-activity than scutellarin. However, it is very difficult to obtain scutellarein in nature compared with scutellarin. Therefore, the present study focused on establishing an efficient route for the [...] Read more.
Scutellarein, the main metabolite of scutellarin in vivo, has relatively better solubility, bioavailability and bio-activity than scutellarin. However, it is very difficult to obtain scutellarein in nature compared with scutellarin. Therefore, the present study focused on establishing an efficient route for the synthesis of scutellarein by hydrolyzing scutellarin. The in vitro antioxidant activities of scutellarein were evaluated by measuring its scavenging capacities toward DPPH, ABTS+•, OH free radicals and its protective effect on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells using MTT assay method. The results showed that essential point to the synthesis was the implementation of H2SO4 in 90% ethanol in N2 atmosphere; scutellarein had stronger antioxidant activity than scutellarin. The results have laid the foundation for further research and the development of scutellarein as a promising candidate for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8181-8207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118181
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 18 October 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3517 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their well-known [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their well-known antioxidant effects, select polyphenols also have insulin-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, and anti-apoptotic properties. One important consequence of ischemia is neuronal death and oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal viability. In addition, neuronal death may be initiated by the activation of mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Another consequence of ischemia that is possibly mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction is glial swelling, a component of cytotoxic brain edema. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death, cell swelling, and brain edema in ischemia. A review of currently known mechanisms underlying neuronal death and edema/cell swelling will be undertaken and the potential of dietary polyphenols to reduce such neural damage will be critically reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessArticle
In Silico Identification of Structure Requirement for Novel Thiazole and Oxazole Derivatives as Potent Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphatase Inhibitors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8161-8180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118161
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 10 November 2011 / Accepted: 16 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3386 | PDF Full-text (3812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) has been identified as a drug discovery target for lowering glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a large series of 105 FBPase inhibitors were studied using a combinational method by 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations [...] Read more.
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) has been identified as a drug discovery target for lowering glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a large series of 105 FBPase inhibitors were studied using a combinational method by 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations for a further improvement in potency. The optimal 3D models exhibit high statistical significance of the results, especially for the CoMFA results with rncv2, q2 values of 0.986, 0.514 for internal validation, and rpred2, rm2 statistics of 0.902, 0.828 statistics for external validation. Graphic representation of the results, as contoured 3D coefficient plots, also provides a clue to the reasonable modification of molecules. (1) Substituents with a proper length and size at the C5 position of the thiazole core are required to enhance the potency; (2) A small and electron-withdrawing group at the C2 position linked to the thiazole core is likely to help increase the FBPase inhibition; (3) Substituent groups as hydrogen bond acceptors at the C2 position of the furan ring are favored. In addition, the agreement between 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation proves the rationality of the developed models. These results, we hope, may be helpful in designing novel and potential FBPase inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Sargassum muticum against Ultraviolet B–Irradiated Damage in Human Keratinocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8146-8160; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118146
Received: 5 September 2011 / Revised: 8 October 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3260 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cell damage in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). SME exhibited scavenging activity toward the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cell damage in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). SME exhibited scavenging activity toward the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). SME also scavenged the hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO4 + H2O2), which was detected using electron spin resonance spectrometry. In addition, SME decreased the level of lipid peroxidation that was increased by UVB radiation, and restored the level of protein expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes that were decreased by UVB radiation. Furthermore, SME reduced UVB-induced apoptosis as shown by decreased DNA fragmentation and numbers of apoptotic bodies. These results suggest that SME protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant activity in cells, thereby inhibiting apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ Mice Exhibit an Increased Incidence of Intestinal Neoplasms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8133-8145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118133
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 30 October 2011 / Accepted: 11 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4126 | PDF Full-text (862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The numbers of obese people and diabetic patients are ever increasing. Obesity and diabetes are high-risk conditions for chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model in [...] Read more.
The numbers of obese people and diabetic patients are ever increasing. Obesity and diabetes are high-risk conditions for chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model in order to clarify the pathobiology of CRC development in obese and diabetic patients. We developed an animal model of obesity and colorectal cancer by breeding the C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mouse, an animal model of obesity and type II diabetes, and the C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ (Min/+) mouse, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis. At 15 weeks of age, the N9 backcross generation of C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ (db/db-Min/+) mice developed an increased incidence and multiplicity of adenomas in the intestinal tract when compared to the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Blood biochemical profile showed significant increases in insulin (8.3-fold to 11.7-fold), cholesterol (1.2-fold to 1.7-fold), and triglyceride (1.2-fold to 1.3-fold) in the db/db-Min/+ mice, when compared to those of the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Increases (1.4-fold to 2.6-fold) in RNA levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IRF-1R, and IGF-2 were also observed in the db/db-Min/+ mice. These results suggested that the IGFs, as well as hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia, promoted adenoma formation in the db/db-Min/+ mice. Our results thus suggested that the db/db-Min/+ mice should be invaluable for studies on the pathogenesis of CRC in obese and diabetes patients and the therapy and prevention of CRC in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Different Reactive Oxygen Species Lead to Distinct Changes of Cellular Metal Ions in the Eukaryotic Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8119-8132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118119
Received: 10 October 2011 / Revised: 4 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3745 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Elemental uptake and export of the cell are tightly regulated thereby maintaining the ionomic homeostasis. This equilibrium can be disrupted upon exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to reduction or elevation of the intracellular metal ions. In this study, the ionomic [...] Read more.
Elemental uptake and export of the cell are tightly regulated thereby maintaining the ionomic homeostasis. This equilibrium can be disrupted upon exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to reduction or elevation of the intracellular metal ions. In this study, the ionomic composition in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was profiled using the inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) following the treatment with individual ROS, including hydrogen peroxide, cumen hydroperoxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAH), the superoxide-generating agent menadione, the thiol-oxidising agent diamide [diazine-dicarboxylic acid-bis(dimethylamide)], dimedone and peroxynitrite. The findings demonstrated that different ROS resulted in distinct changes in cellular metal ions. Aluminium (Al3+) level rose up to 50-fold after the diamide treatment. Cellular potassium (K+) in LAH-treated cells was 26-fold less compared to the non-treated controls. The diamide-induced Al3+ accumulation was further validated by the enhanced Al3+ uptake along the time course and diamide doses. Pre-incubation of yeast with individual elements including iron, copper, manganese and magnesium failed to block diamide-induced Al3+ uptake, suggesting Al3+-specific transporters could be involved in Al3+ uptake. Furthermore, LAH-induced potassium depletion was validated by a rescue experiment in which addition of potassium increased yeast growth in LAH-containing media by 26% compared to LAH alone. Taken together, the data, for the first time, demonstrated the linkage between ionomic profiles and individual oxidative conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of Quality Characteristics of Korean Soy Sauce Made with Soybeans Germinated Under Dark and Light Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8105-8118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118105
Received: 10 August 2011 / Revised: 26 October 2011 / Accepted: 31 October 2011 / Published: 17 November 2011
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4713 | PDF Full-text (2254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Polysaccharides from Soybean Meal Against X-ray Radiation Induced Damage in Mouse Spleen Lymphocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8096-8104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118096
Received: 21 October 2011 / Revised: 8 November 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published: 17 November 2011
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3518 | PDF Full-text (115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective effect of the polysaccharides from soybean meal (SMP) against X-ray radiation-induced damage in mouse spleen lymphocytes. MTT and comet assay were performed to evaluate SMP’s ability to prevent cell death and DNA damage induced [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective effect of the polysaccharides from soybean meal (SMP) against X-ray radiation-induced damage in mouse spleen lymphocytes. MTT and comet assay were performed to evaluate SMP’s ability to prevent cell death and DNA damage induced by radiation. The results show that, X-ray radiation (30 KV, 10 mA, 8 min (4 Gy)) can significantly increase cell death and DNA fragmentation of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Pretreatment with SMP for 2 h before radiation could increase cell viability, moreover, the SMP can reduce X-ray radiation-induced DNA damage. The percentage of tail DNA and the tail moment of the SMP groups were significantly lower than those of the radiation alone group (p < 0.05). These results suggest SMP may be a good candidate as a radioprotective agent. Full article
Open AccessTechnical Note
An Efficient Method for Genomic DNA Extraction from Different Molluscs Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8086-8095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118086
Received: 13 September 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 17 November 2011
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3887 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The selection of a DNA extraction method is a critical step when subsequent analysis depends on the DNA quality and quantity. Unlike mammals, for which several capable DNA extraction methods have been developed, for molluscs the availability of optimized genomic DNA extraction protocols [...] Read more.
The selection of a DNA extraction method is a critical step when subsequent analysis depends on the DNA quality and quantity. Unlike mammals, for which several capable DNA extraction methods have been developed, for molluscs the availability of optimized genomic DNA extraction protocols is clearly insufficient. Several aspects such as animal physiology, the type (e.g., adductor muscle or gills) or quantity of tissue, can explain the lack of efficiency (quality and yield) in molluscs genomic DNA extraction procedure. In an attempt to overcome these aspects, this work describes an efficient method for molluscs genomic DNA extraction that was tested in several species from different orders: Veneridae, Ostreidae, Anomiidae, Cardiidae (Bivalvia) and Muricidae (Gastropoda), with different weight sample tissues. The isolated DNA was of high molecular weight with high yield and purity, even with reduced quantities of tissue. Moreover, the genomic DNA isolated, demonstrated to be suitable for several downstream molecular techniques, such as PCR sequencing among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
Chromatin Structure Following UV-Induced DNA Damage—Repair or Death?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8063-8085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118063
Received: 14 September 2011 / Revised: 5 October 2011 / Accepted: 31 October 2011 / Published: 17 November 2011
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6965 | PDF Full-text (708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In eukaryotes, DNA is compacted into a complex structure known as chromatin. The unravelling of DNA is a crucial step in DNA repair, replication, transcription and recombination as this allows access to DNA for these processes. Failure to package DNA into the nucleosome, [...] Read more.
In eukaryotes, DNA is compacted into a complex structure known as chromatin. The unravelling of DNA is a crucial step in DNA repair, replication, transcription and recombination as this allows access to DNA for these processes. Failure to package DNA into the nucleosome, the individual unit of chromatin, can lead to genomic instability, driving a cell into apoptosis, senescence, or cellular proliferation. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage causes destabilisation of chromatin integrity. UV irradiation induces DNA damage such as photolesions and subjects the chromatin to substantial rearrangements, causing the arrest of transcription forks and cell cycle arrest. Highly conserved processes known as nucleotide and base excision repair (NER and BER) then begin to repair these lesions. However, if DNA repair fails, the cell may be forced into apoptosis. The modification of various histones as well as nucleosome remodelling via ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes are required not only to repair these UV-induced DNA lesions, but also for apoptosis signalling. Histone modifications and nucleosome remodelling in response to UV also lead to the recruitment of various repair and pro-apoptotic proteins. Thus, the way in which a cell responds to UV irradiation via these modifications is important in determining its fate. Failure of these DNA damage response steps can lead to cellular proliferation and oncogenic development, causing skin cancer, hence these chromatin changes are critical for a proper response to UV-induced injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Induced Cell Death)
Open AccessArticle
3,3′-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine Iodide: A Highly Sensitive Chiroptical Reporter of DNA Helicity and Sequence
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8052-8062; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118052
Received: 21 October 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3824 | PDF Full-text (1148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Using UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, we explored the binding interactions of 3,3′-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (Cy7) with polynucleotides of different sequences and helicity. CD showed to be a very diagnostic tool giving different spectroscopic chiroptical signatures for all explored DNA [...] Read more.
Using UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, we explored the binding interactions of 3,3′-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (Cy7) with polynucleotides of different sequences and helicity. CD showed to be a very diagnostic tool giving different spectroscopic chiroptical signatures for all explored DNA sequences upon Cy7 binding. Cy7 was able to spectroscopically discriminate between the right handed B-DNA of poly(dG-dC)2 and its left handed Z-DNA counterpart induced by spermine or Co(III)hexamine via nearly opposite induced circular dichroic signal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Circular Dichroism)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Oncolytic Activities of Host Defense Peptides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8027-8051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118027
Received: 13 September 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 4150 | PDF Full-text (444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer continues to be a leading source of morbidity and mortality worldwide in spite of progress in oncolytic therapies. In addition, the incidence of cancers affecting the breast, kidney, prostate and skin among others continue to rise. Chemotherapeutic drugs are widely used in [...] Read more.
Cancer continues to be a leading source of morbidity and mortality worldwide in spite of progress in oncolytic therapies. In addition, the incidence of cancers affecting the breast, kidney, prostate and skin among others continue to rise. Chemotherapeutic drugs are widely used in cancer treatment but have the serious drawback of nonspecific toxicity because these agents target any rapidly dividing cell without discriminating between healthy and malignant cells. In addition, many neoplasms eventually become resistant to conventional chemotherapy due to selection for multidrug-resistant variants. The limitations associated with existing chemotherapeutic drugs have stimulated the search for new oncolytic therapies. Host defense peptides (HDPs) may represent a novel family of oncolytic agents that can avoid the shortcomings of conventional chemotherapy because they exhibit selective cytotoxicity against a broad spectrum of malignant human cells, including multi-drug-resistant neoplastic cells. Oncolytic activity by HDPs is usually via necrosis due to cell membrane lysis, but some HDPs can trigger apoptosis in cancer cells via mitochondrial membrane disruption. In addition, certain HDPs are anti-angiogenic which may inhibit cancer progression. This paper reviews oncolytic HDP studies in order to address the suitability of selected HDPs as oncolytic therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Resorcylidene Aminoguanidine (RAG) Improves Cardiac Mitochondrial Bioenergetics Impaired by Hyperglycaemia in a Model of Experimental Diabetes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8013-8026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12118013
Received: 25 July 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2706 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetes is associated with a mitochondrial dysfunction. Hyperglycaemia is also clearly recognized as the primary culprit in the pathogenesis of cardiac complications. In response to glycation and oxidative stress, cardiac mitochondria undergo cumulative alterations, often leading to heart deterioration. There is a continuous [...] Read more.
Diabetes is associated with a mitochondrial dysfunction. Hyperglycaemia is also clearly recognized as the primary culprit in the pathogenesis of cardiac complications. In response to glycation and oxidative stress, cardiac mitochondria undergo cumulative alterations, often leading to heart deterioration. There is a continuous search for innovative treatment strategies for protecting the heart mitochondria from the destructive impact of diabetes. Aminoguanidine derivatives have been successfully used in animal model studies on the treatment of experimental diabetes, as well as the diabetes-driven dysfunctions of peripheral tissues and cells. Considerable attention has been paid particularly to β-resorcylidene aminoguanidine (RAG), often shown as the efficient anti-glycation and anti-oxidant agent in both animal studies and in vitro experiments. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that RAG improves oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport capacity in mitochondria impaired by hyperglycaemia. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg body weight). Heart mitochondria were isolated from healthy rats and rats with streptozotocin-diabetes. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity was measured by high resolution respirometry with the OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k according to experimental protocol including respiratory substrates and inhibitors. The results revealed that RAG protects the heart against diabetes-associated injury by improving the mitochondrial bioenergetics, thus suggesting a possible novel pharmacological strategy for cardioprotection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7996-8012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117996
Received: 15 September 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3944 | PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON) through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total [...] Read more.
The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON) through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment): (1) control diet; (2) diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3) diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion) responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed) significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P < 0.01) shorter in both DON treated groups compared with the controls. Furthermore, the dietary inclusion of DON decreased (P < 0.05) the villus surface area in both DON treated groups. The absolute or relative organ weights (liver, heart, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, spleen, pancreas, colon, cecum, bursa of Fabricius and thymus) were not altered (P > 0.05) in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1) were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum). Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large intestine and in feces. The results indicate that deepoxydation in the present study hardly occurred in the distal segments of the digestive tract, assuming that the complete de-epoxydation occurs in the proximal small intestine where the majority of the parent toxin is absorbed. In conclusion, diets with DON contamination below levels that induce a negative impact on performance could alter small intestinal morphology in broilers. Additionally, the results confirm that the majority of the ingested DON quickly disappears through the gastrointestinal tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessArticle
Expression Patterns of Glutathione Transferase Gene (GstI) in Maize Seedlings Under Juglone-Induced Oxidative Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7982-7995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117982
Received: 9 October 2011 / Revised: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3678 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) has been identified in organs of many plant species within Juglandaceae family. This secondary metabolite is considered as a highly bioactive substance that functions as direct oxidant stimulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in acceptor plants. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, [...] Read more.
Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) has been identified in organs of many plant species within Juglandaceae family. This secondary metabolite is considered as a highly bioactive substance that functions as direct oxidant stimulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in acceptor plants. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, E.C.2.5.1.18) represent an important group of cytoprotective enzymes participating in detoxification of xenobiotics and limiting oxidative damages of cellular macromolecules. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of tested allelochemical on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, the effect of juglone-induced oxidative stress on glutathione transferase (GstI) gene expression patterns in maize seedlings was recorded. It was revealed that 4-day juglone treatment significantly stimulated the transcriptional activity of GstI in maize seedlings compared to control plants. By contrast, at the 6th and 8th day of experiments the expression gene responses were slightly lower as compared with non-stressed seedlings. Additionally, the specific gene expression profiles, as well as the inhibition of primary roots and coleoptile elongation were proportional to juglone concentrations. In conclusion, the results provide strong molecular evidence that allelopathic influence of juglone on growth and development of maize seedlings may be relevant with an induction of oxidative stress in acceptor plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Temporary Nitrogen Deprivation on Tomato Leaf Phenolics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7971-7981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117971
Received: 9 September 2011 / Revised: 7 November 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3948 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reducing the use of pesticides represents a major challenge of modern agriculture. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that participate in the resistance to parasites. The aim of this study was to test: (1) the impact of nitrogen deficiency on tomato ( [...] Read more.
Reducing the use of pesticides represents a major challenge of modern agriculture. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that participate in the resistance to parasites. The aim of this study was to test: (1) the impact of nitrogen deficiency on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaf composition and more particularly on two phenolic molecules (chlorogenic acid and rutin) as well as on the general plant biomass; and (2) whether this effect continued after a return to normal nitrogen nutrition. Our results showed that plants deprived of nitrogen for 10 or 19 days contained higher levels of chlorogenic acid and rutin than control plants. In addition, this difference persisted when the plants were once again cultivated on a nitrogen-rich medium. These findings offer interesting perspectives on the use of a short period of deprivation to modulate the levels of compounds of interest in a plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Are Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Useful in Predicting the Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis Patients?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7960-7970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117960
Received: 3 August 2011 / Revised: 11 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3528 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypical inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Although many advances have been made in the comprehension of its pathogenesis, the etiology is still unknown. The complexity of MS reflects in the extreme variability of the [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypical inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Although many advances have been made in the comprehension of its pathogenesis, the etiology is still unknown. The complexity of MS reflects in the extreme variability of the clinical manifestations and clinical course both between and within patients, in addition to immunopathological mechanisms and response to treatment. Several prognostic factors have been suggested in large scale studies, but predictions in individual cases are difficult to make. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as 14-3-3, tau, and cystatin C are promising sources of prognostic information with a good potential of quantitative measure, sensitivity, and reliability. However, none has shown sufficient reproducibility to be applied in clinical practice. Here we review the current literature addressing the above mentioned biomarkers as MS severity predictors at an early stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
Open AccessArticle
MicroRNAs miR-27a and miR-143 Regulate Porcine Adipocyte Lipid Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7950-7959; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117950
Received: 23 September 2011 / Revised: 7 November 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 3944 | PDF Full-text (393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that play roles in regulating gene expression. Some miRNAs have been classed as epigenetic regulators of metabolism and energy homeostasis. Previous reports indicated that the miRNAs miR-27a and miR-143 were involved in lipid metabolism in human and [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that play roles in regulating gene expression. Some miRNAs have been classed as epigenetic regulators of metabolism and energy homeostasis. Previous reports indicated that the miRNAs miR-27a and miR-143 were involved in lipid metabolism in human and rodents. To determine the roles of porcine miR-27a and miR-143 in adipocyte lipid metabolism, porcine adipocytes were cultured and allowed to induce differentiation for 10 days. The lipid-filled adipocytes were then transfected with miRNA mimics and inhibitors. We measured how the indicators of adipogenesis and adipolysis in porcine adipocytes were affected by the over-expression and by the inhibition of both miR-27a and miR-143. The results indicated that the over-expression of miR-27a could accelerate adipolysis releasing significantly more glycerol and free fatty acids than the negative control (P < 0.001), while the mimic of miR-143 expression, promoted adipogenesis by accumulating more triglycerides (P < 0.001) in the adipocytes. In addition, we demonstrated that there was good correlation (r > 0.98, P < 0.001) between the indicators of adipolysis in cell lysates and in the culture medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7934-7949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117934
Received: 31 August 2011 / Revised: 24 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5231 | PDF Full-text (462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stone-Wales operators interchange four adjacent hexagons with two pentagon-heptagon 5|7 pairs that, graphically, may be iteratively propagated in the graphene layer, originating a new interesting structural defect called here Stone-Wales wave. By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of [...] Read more.
Stone-Wales operators interchange four adjacent hexagons with two pentagon-heptagon 5|7 pairs that, graphically, may be iteratively propagated in the graphene layer, originating a new interesting structural defect called here Stone-Wales wave. By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, topologically, are in fact preferably generated and propagated along the diagonal of the graphenic fragments, including carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. This peculiar edge-effect is shown in this paper having a predominant topological origin, leaving to future experimental investigations the task of verifying the occurrence in nature of wave-like defects similar to the ones proposed here. Graph-theoretical tools used in this paper for the generation and the propagation of the Stone-Wales defects waves are applicable to investigate isomeric modifications of chemical structures with various dimensionality like fullerenes, nanotubes, graphenic layers, schwarzites, zeolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atoms in Molecules and in Nanostructures)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Environmental Signals and Regulatory Pathways That Influence Exopolysaccharide Production in Rhizobia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7898-7933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117898
Received: 29 August 2011 / Revised: 4 November 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 4198 | PDF Full-text (1429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rhizobia are Gram-negative bacteria that can exist either as free-living bacteria or as nitrogen-fixing symbionts inside root nodules of leguminous plants. The composition of the rhizobial outer surface, containing a variety of polysaccharides, plays a significant role in the adaptation of these bacteria [...] Read more.
Rhizobia are Gram-negative bacteria that can exist either as free-living bacteria or as nitrogen-fixing symbionts inside root nodules of leguminous plants. The composition of the rhizobial outer surface, containing a variety of polysaccharides, plays a significant role in the adaptation of these bacteria in both habitats. Among rhizobial polymers, exopolysaccharide (EPS) is indispensable for the invasion of a great majority of host plants which form indeterminate-type nodules. Various functions are ascribed to this heteropolymer, including protection against environmental stress and host defense, attachment to abiotic and biotic surfaces, and in signaling. The synthesis of EPS in rhizobia is a multi-step process regulated by several proteins at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Also, some environmental factors (carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate starvation, flavonoids) and stress conditions (osmolarity, ionic strength) affect EPS production. This paper discusses the recent data concerning the function of the genes required for EPS synthesis and the regulation of this process by several environmental signals. Up till now, the synthesis of rhizobial EPS has been best studied in two species, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum. The latest data indicate that EPS synthesis in rhizobia undergoes very complex hierarchical regulation, in which proteins engaged in quorum sensing and the regulation of motility genes also participate. This finding enables a better understanding of the complex processes occurring in the rhizosphere which are crucial for successful colonization and infection of host plant roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of By-Products from Olive Oil Processing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7885-7897; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117885
Received: 1 September 2011 / Revised: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 31 October 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3024 | PDF Full-text (1088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20–50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and [...] Read more.
The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20–50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10−11 to 1.406 × 10−9 m2/s in forced convection (ma = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10−11 to 6.277 × 10−10 m2/s in natural convection (ma = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick’s diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
Applications of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies to Diagnostic Virology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7861-7884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117861
Received: 2 September 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
Cited by 129 | Viewed by 9431 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel DNA sequencing techniques, referred to as “next-generation” sequencing (NGS), provide high speed and throughput that can produce an enormous volume of sequences with many possible applications in research and diagnostic settings. In this article, we provide an overview of the many applications [...] Read more.
Novel DNA sequencing techniques, referred to as “next-generation” sequencing (NGS), provide high speed and throughput that can produce an enormous volume of sequences with many possible applications in research and diagnostic settings. In this article, we provide an overview of the many applications of NGS in diagnostic virology. NGS techniques have been used for high-throughput whole viral genome sequencing, such as sequencing of new influenza viruses, for detection of viral genome variability and evolution within the host, such as investigation of human immunodeficiency virus and human hepatitis C virus quasispecies, and monitoring of low-abundance antiviral drug-resistance mutations. NGS techniques have been applied to metagenomics-based strategies for the detection of unexpected disease-associated viruses and for the discovery of novel human viruses, including cancer-related viruses. Finally, the human virome in healthy and disease conditions has been described by NGS-based metagenomics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Diagnostics)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Rapid and Green Analytical Method for the Determination of Quinoline Alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra Based on Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) Prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7846-7860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117846
Received: 9 September 2011 / Revised: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 31 October 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5119 | PDF Full-text (562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quinas contains several compounds, such as quinoline alkaloids, principally quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cichonidine. Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from [...] Read more.
Quinas contains several compounds, such as quinoline alkaloids, principally quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cichonidine. Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from bark of Cinchona succirubra. The process is performed in four steps, which ensures complete, rapid and accurate extraction of the samples. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology reached from a central composite design. The MIEL extraction has been compared with a conventional technique soxhlet extraction. The extracts of quinoline alkaloids from C. succirubra obtained by these two different methods were compared by HPLC. The extracts obtained by MIEL in 32 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine) similar to those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction in 3 hours. MIEL is a green technology that serves as a good alternative for the extraction of Cinchona alkaloids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry 2011)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessShort Note
Development of Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) Markers in Setaria italica (Poaceae) and Cross-Amplification in Related Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7835-7845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12117835
Received: 14 October 2011 / Revised: 28 October 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 11 November 2011
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3145 | PDF Full-text (127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Foxtail millet is one of the world’s oldest cultivated crops. It has been adopted as a model organism for providing a deeper understanding of plant biology. In this study, 45 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers of Setaria italica were developed. These markers showing [...] Read more.
Foxtail millet is one of the world’s oldest cultivated crops. It has been adopted as a model organism for providing a deeper understanding of plant biology. In this study, 45 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers of Setaria italica were developed. These markers showing polymorphism were screened in 223 samples from 12 foxtail millet populations around Taiwan. The most common dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat motifs are AC/TG (84.21%) and CAT (46.15%). The average number of alleles (Na), the average heterozygosities observed (Ho) and expected (He) are 3.73, 0.714, 0.587, respectively. In addition, 24 SSR markers had shown transferability to six related Poaceae species. These new markers provide tools for examining genetic relatedness among foxtail millet populations and other related species. It is suitable for germplasm management and protection in Poaceae. Full article
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top