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Molecules, Volume 8, Issue 9 (September 2003) – 6 articles , Pages 649-726

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166 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)pyrrolo[2,1-d]pyrido[2,3-c]-[1,5]-thiazepin-3(2H)-one
by Eunsook Ma
Molecules 2003, 8(9), 678-686; https://doi.org/10.3390/80900678 - 17 Aug 2003
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 8345
Abstract
2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)pyrrolo[2,1-d]pyrido[2,3-c][1,5]thiazepin-3(2H)-one, a key intermediate in the synthesis of pyrrolopyridothiazepine derivatives, was synthesized from bis(4H-pyrrolo-3-pyridyl)disulfide and α-bromo-(4-methoxyphenyl) acetic acid ethyl ester in order to develop a novel calcium channel antagonist. Full article
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342 KiB  
Article
Total and Local Quadratic Indices of the Molecular Pseudograph's Atom Adjacency Matrix: Applications to the Prediction of Physical Properties of Organic Compounds
by Yovani Marrero Ponce
Molecules 2003, 8(9), 687-726; https://doi.org/10.3390/80900687 - 15 Aug 2003
Cited by 90 | Viewed by 13010
Abstract
A novel topological approach for obtaining a family of new molecular descriptors is proposed. In this connection, a vector space E (molecular vector space), whose elements are organic molecules, is defined as a “direct sum“ of different ℜi spaces. In this [...] Read more.
A novel topological approach for obtaining a family of new molecular descriptors is proposed. In this connection, a vector space E (molecular vector space), whose elements are organic molecules, is defined as a “direct sum“ of different ℜi spaces. In this way we can represent molecules having a total of i atoms as elements (vectors) of the vector spaces ℜi (i=1, 2, 3,..., n; where n is number of atoms in the molecule). In these spaces the components of the vectors are atomic properties that characterize each kind of atom in particular. The total quadratic indices are based on the calculation of mathematical quadratic forms. These forms are functions of the k-th power of the molecular pseudograph's atom adjacency matrix (M). For simplicity, canonical bases are selected as the quadratic forms' bases. These indices were generalized to “higher analogues“ as number sequences. In addition, this paper also introduces a local approach (local invariant) for molecular quadratic indices. This approach is based mainly on the use of a local matrix [Mk(G, FR)]. This local matrix is obtained from the k-th power (Mk(G)) of the atom adjacency matrix M. Mk(G, FR) includes the elements of the fragment of interest and those that are connected with it, through paths of length k. Finally, total (and local) quadratic indices have been used in QSPR studies of four series of organic compounds. The quantitative models found are significant from a statistical point of view and permit a clear interpretation of the studied properties in terms of the structural features of molecules. External prediction series and cross-validation procedures (leave-one-out and leave-group-out) assessed model predictability. The reported method has shown similar results, compared with other topological approaches. The results obtained were the following: a) Seven physical properties of 74 normal and branched alkanes (boiling points, molar volumes, molar refractions, heats of vaporization, critical temperatures, critical pressures and surface tensions) were well modeled (R>0.98, q2>0.95) by the total quadratic indices. The overall MAE of 5-fold cross-validation were of 2.11 oC, 0.53 cm3, 0.032 cm3, 0.32 KJ/mol, 5.34 oC, 0.64 atm, 0.23 dyn/cm for each property, respectively; b) boiling points of 58 alkyl alcohols also were well described by the present approach; in this sense, two QSPR models were obtained; the first one was developed using the complete set of 58 alcohols [R=0.9938, q2=0.986, s=4.006oC, overall MAE of 5-fold cross-validation=3.824 oC] and the second one was developed using 29 compounds as a training set [R=0.9979, q2=0.992, s=2.97 oC, overall MAE of 5-fold cross-validation=2.580 oC] and 29 compounds as a test set [R=0.9938, s=3.17 oC]; c) good relationships were obtained for the boiling points property (using 80 and 26 cycloalkanes in the training and test sets, respectively) using 2 and 5 total quadratic indices: [Training set: R=0.9823 (q2=0.961 and overall MAE of 5-fold crossvalidation= 6.429 oC) and R=0.9927 (q2=0.977 and overall MAE of 5-fold crossvalidation= 4.801 oC); Test set: R=0.9726 and R=0.9927] and d) the linear model developed to describe the boiling points of 70 organic compounds containing aromatic rings has shown good statistical features, with a squared correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.981 (s=7.61 oC). Internal validation procedures (q2=0.9763 and overall MAE of 5-fold cross-validation=7.34 oC) allowed the predictability and robustness of the model found to be assessed. The predictive performance of the obtained QSPR model also was tested on an extra set of 20 aromatic organic compounds (R=0.9930 and s=7.8280 oC). The results obtained are valid to establish that these new indices fulfill some of the ideal requirements proposed by Randić for a new molecular descriptor. Full article
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138 KiB  
Article
Sesquiterpenes from Cymbopogon proximus
by Hesham I. El-Askary, Meselhy R. Meselhy and Ahmed M. Galal
Molecules 2003, 8(9), 670-677; https://doi.org/10.3390/80900670 - 15 Aug 2003
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 13675
Abstract
In addition to four previously reported compounds: proximadiol (1), 5α-hydroxy-β-eudesmol (2), 1β-hydroxy-β-eudesmol (4) and 1β-hydroxy-α-eudesmol (5), two new sesquiterpenes, 5α-hydroperoxy-β-eudesmol (3) and 7α,11-dihydroxycadin-10(14)-ene (6) were isolated from the unsaponifiable fraction of the petroleum ether extract of Cymbopogon proximus STAPF. Isolation of compounds 2, [...] Read more.
In addition to four previously reported compounds: proximadiol (1), 5α-hydroxy-β-eudesmol (2), 1β-hydroxy-β-eudesmol (4) and 1β-hydroxy-α-eudesmol (5), two new sesquiterpenes, 5α-hydroperoxy-β-eudesmol (3) and 7α,11-dihydroxycadin-10(14)-ene (6) were isolated from the unsaponifiable fraction of the petroleum ether extract of Cymbopogon proximus STAPF. Isolation of compounds 2, 4 and 5 from the genus Cymbopogon is reported for the first time. The structure elucidation of these compounds was based primarily on 1D and 2D-NMR analyses. Full article
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80 KiB  
Article
Highly Efficient, and Fast Solid State Deprotection of 1,3-Dithianes and 1,3-Dithiolanes using Mercury(II) Nitrate Trihydrate
by Mohammad H. Habibi, Shahram Tangestaninejad, Morteza Montazerozohori and Iraj Mohamadpoor-Baltork
Molecules 2003, 8(9), 663-669; https://doi.org/10.3390/80900663 - 15 Aug 2003
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 8617
Abstract
A variety of 1,3-dithianes and 1,3-dithiolanes are deprotected in the solid state to the corresponding parent carbonyl compounds in excellent yields using mercury(II) nitrate trihydrate in a mild, efficient and fast method. Full article
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97 KiB  
Article
Solvent and Substituent Effects on the Thermolysis of Antimalarial Fluorophenyl Substituted 1,2.4-Trioxanes
by Lazaro F. R. Cafferata and Ruben S. Rimada
Molecules 2003, 8(9), 655-662; https://doi.org/10.3390/80900655 - 15 Aug 2003
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 8781
Abstract
The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal decomposition reaction of cis-6-(4-fluoropheny1)-5,6-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-propylidene]-3,3-tetramethylene-l,2,4-trioxacyclohexane (I) were investigated separately in n-hexane and in methanol solutions over the temperature and concentration ranges of 393.2-443.2 K and 2.7-54 x l0-5 M, respectively. The values of the [...] Read more.
The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal decomposition reaction of cis-6-(4-fluoropheny1)-5,6-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-propylidene]-3,3-tetramethylene-l,2,4-trioxacyclohexane (I) were investigated separately in n-hexane and in methanol solutions over the temperature and concentration ranges of 393.2-443.2 K and 2.7-54 x l0-5 M, respectively. The values of the activation parameters for both reactions were compared with the corresponding ones for the thermolysis of cis-6-(4-fluorophenyl-5,6-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-hydroxypropylidene]-3,3-tetramethylene-1,2,4-trioxacyclohexane (II), investigated in the same solvents and temperature range. Substituent and solvent effects on the initial homolytic rupture of the O-O peroxydic bonds of those molecules were evaluated. Full article
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125 KiB  
Article
An Attempt to Assign the NMR Spectra in 7-Methyl-and 7-Benzyl-substituted 7H-Purine 1-Oxides Using the ACD/Labs Software Package
by Stanisław Ostrowski
Molecules 2003, 8(9), 649-654; https://doi.org/10.3390/80900649 - 15 Aug 2003
Viewed by 10180
Abstract
Commercially available 4-nitroimidazole can be transformed in a few simple steps into 4-aminoimidazoyl-5-carboximes, from which the respective purine mono-1-oxides may be synthesized. The N→O functionality in these products significantly changes the electron density in the purine skeleton and consequently, the determination of the [...] Read more.
Commercially available 4-nitroimidazole can be transformed in a few simple steps into 4-aminoimidazoyl-5-carboximes, from which the respective purine mono-1-oxides may be synthesized. The N→O functionality in these products significantly changes the electron density in the purine skeleton and consequently, the determination of the 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra of these simple compounds is somewhat troublesome. The use of the ACD/Labs software package for this purpose is discussed. Full article
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