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Article

An In Vitro Pilot Fermentation Study on the Impact of Chlorella pyrenoidosa on Gut Microbiome Composition and Metabolites in Healthy and Coeliac Subjects

1
Department of Life Sciences, University of Roehampton, London SW15 4JD, UK
2
Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
3
Department of Medical and Surgical Science, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
4
School of Human Development and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
5
Division of Systems Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Academic Editors: Maria J. Rodriguez Lagunas, Malén Massot Cladera and Rossella Grande
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2330; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082330
Received: 13 February 2021 / Revised: 8 April 2021 / Accepted: 13 April 2021 / Published: 16 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds on Health and Disease)
The response of a coeliac and a healthy gut microbiota to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa was evaluated using an in vitro continuous, pH controlled, gut model system, which simulated the human colon. The effect of C. pyrenoidosa on the microbial structure was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and inferred metagenomics, whereas the metabolic activitywas determined by1H-nuclear magnetic resonancespectroscopic analysis. The addition of C. pyrenoidosa significantly increased the abundance of the genera Prevotella, Ruminococcus and Faecalibacterium in the healthy donor, while an increase in Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium and Megasphaera and a decrease in Enterobacteriaceae were observed in the coeliac donor. C. pyrenoidosa also altered several microbial pathways including those involved in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. At the metabolic level, a significant increase from baseline was seen in butyrate and propionate (p < 0.0001) in the healthy donor, especially in vessels 2 and 3. While acetate was significantly higher in the healthy donor at baseline in vessel 3 (p < 0.001) compared to the coeliac donor, this was markedly decreased after in vitro fermentation with C. pyrenoidosa. This is the first in vitro fermentation study of C. pyrenoidosa and human gut microbiota, however, further in vivo studies are needed to prove its efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: C. pyrenoidosa; in vitro gut model; gut microbiome; metabolism C. pyrenoidosa; in vitro gut model; gut microbiome; metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

van der Linde, C.; Barone, M.; Turroni, S.; Brigidi, P.; Keleszade, E.; Swann, J.R.; Costabile, A. An In Vitro Pilot Fermentation Study on the Impact of Chlorella pyrenoidosa on Gut Microbiome Composition and Metabolites in Healthy and Coeliac Subjects. Molecules 2021, 26, 2330. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082330

AMA Style

van der Linde C, Barone M, Turroni S, Brigidi P, Keleszade E, Swann JR, Costabile A. An In Vitro Pilot Fermentation Study on the Impact of Chlorella pyrenoidosa on Gut Microbiome Composition and Metabolites in Healthy and Coeliac Subjects. Molecules. 2021; 26(8):2330. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082330

Chicago/Turabian Style

van der Linde, Carmen, Monica Barone, Silvia Turroni, Patrizia Brigidi, Enver Keleszade, Jonathan R. Swann, and Adele Costabile. 2021. "An In Vitro Pilot Fermentation Study on the Impact of Chlorella pyrenoidosa on Gut Microbiome Composition and Metabolites in Healthy and Coeliac Subjects" Molecules 26, no. 8: 2330. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082330

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