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Review

The Future of Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment and Surveillance: A Systemic Review on Immunotherapy and Immuno-PET Radiotracers

1
Department of Medical Science, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Torino, 10126 Torino, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and of Morpho-Functional Imaging, Nuclear Medicine Unit, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
3
Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
4
Molecular & Preclinical Imaging Centers, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, Via Nizza 52, 10126 Torino, Italy
5
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kantonsspital Baden, 5004 Baden, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Amedeo Amedei
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082201
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 7 April 2021 / Accepted: 9 April 2021 / Published: 11 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of the Cancer Treatment: The Immunotherapy Next Generation)
Immunotherapy is an effective therapeutic option for several cancers. In the last years, the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has shifted the therapeutic landscape in oncology and improved patient prognosis in a variety of neoplastic diseases. However, to date, the selection of the best patients eligible for these therapies, as well as the response assessment is still challenging. Patients are mainly stratified using an immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of antigens on biopsy specimens, such as PD-L1 and PD-1, on tumor cells, on peritumoral immune cells and/or in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recently, the use and development of imaging biomarkers able to assess in-vivo cancer-related processes are becoming more important. Today, positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) is used routinely to evaluate tumor metabolism, and also to predict and monitor response to immunotherapy. Although highly sensitive, FDG-PET in general is rather unspecific. Novel radiopharmaceuticals (immuno-PET radiotracers), able to identify specific immune system targets, are under investigation in pre-clinical and clinical settings to better highlight all the mechanisms involved in immunotherapy. In this review, we will provide an overview of the main new immuno-PET radiotracers in development. We will also review the main players (immune cells, tumor cells and molecular targets) involved in immunotherapy. Furthermore, we report current applications and the evidence of using [18F]FDG PET in immunotherapy, including the use of artificial intelligence (AI). View Full-Text
Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune checkpoint radiolabeled antibodies; PD-1; PD-L1; immune PET; immunotherapy; AI; radiomics; deep learning; CAR-T cells immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune checkpoint radiolabeled antibodies; PD-1; PD-L1; immune PET; immunotherapy; AI; radiomics; deep learning; CAR-T cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liberini, V.; Laudicella, R.; Capozza, M.; Huellner, M.W.; Burger, I.A.; Baldari, S.; Terreno, E.; Deandreis, D. The Future of Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment and Surveillance: A Systemic Review on Immunotherapy and Immuno-PET Radiotracers. Molecules 2021, 26, 2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082201

AMA Style

Liberini V, Laudicella R, Capozza M, Huellner MW, Burger IA, Baldari S, Terreno E, Deandreis D. The Future of Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment and Surveillance: A Systemic Review on Immunotherapy and Immuno-PET Radiotracers. Molecules. 2021; 26(8):2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082201

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liberini, Virginia, Riccardo Laudicella, Martina Capozza, Martin W. Huellner, Irene A. Burger, Sergio Baldari, Enzo Terreno, and Désirée Deandreis. 2021. "The Future of Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment and Surveillance: A Systemic Review on Immunotherapy and Immuno-PET Radiotracers" Molecules 26, no. 8: 2201. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082201

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