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Open AccessArticle

The Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Potential of Selected Ethnomedicinal Plants from Sri Lanka

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle 80000, Sri Lanka
2
Department of Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany
3
Research Group Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, 07745 Jena, Germany
4
National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy 20000, Sri Lanka
5
Faculty of Engineering, Higher Colleges of Technology, PO Box 4793 Abu Dhabi, UAE
6
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle 80000, Sri Lanka
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianni Sacchetti
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081894
Received: 21 March 2020 / Revised: 13 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
Traditional folk medicine in Sri Lanka is mostly based on plants and plant-derived products, however, many of these medicinal plant species are scientifically unexplored. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial potency of 28 different extracts prepared from seven popular medicinal plant species employed in Sri Lanka. The extracts were subjected to cell-based and cell-free assays of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1, and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. Moreover, antibacterial and disinfectant activities were assessed. Characterization of secondary metabolites was achieved by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. n-Hexane- and dichloromethane-based extracts of Garcinia cambogia efficiently suppressed 5-LO activity in human neutrophils (IC50 = 0.92 and 1.39 µg/mL), and potently inhibited isolated human 5-LO (IC50 = 0.15 and 0.16 µg/mL) and mPGES-1 (IC50 = 0.29 and 0.49 µg/mL). Lipophilic extracts of Pothos scandens displayed potent inhibition of mPGES-1 only. A methanolic extract of Ophiorrhiza mungos caused significant NO scavenging activity. The lipophilic extracts of G. cambogia exhibited prominent antibacterial and disinfectant activities, and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of fatty acids, sesquiterpenes and other types of secondary metabolites. Together, our results suggest the prospective utilization of G. cambogia as disinfective agent with potent anti-inflammatory properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5-lipoxygenase; microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase; nitric oxide; medicinal plants; antimicrobial; disinfectant 5-lipoxygenase; microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase; nitric oxide; medicinal plants; antimicrobial; disinfectant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Napagoda, M.; Gerstmeier, J.; Butschek, H.; De Soyza, S.; Pace, S.; Lorenz, S.; Qader, M.; Witharana, S.; Nagahawatte, A.; Wijayaratne, G.; Svatoš, A.; Jayasinghe, L.; Koeberle, A.; Werz, O. The Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Potential of Selected Ethnomedicinal Plants from Sri Lanka. Molecules 2020, 25, 1894.

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