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Open AccessReview

Multivalent Ions as Reactive Crosslinkers for Biopolymers—A Review

1
Research Institute of Textile Chemistry and Textile Physics, University of Innsbruck, Rundfunkplatz 4, 6850 Dornbirn, Vorarlberg, Austria
2
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre and Polymer Technology/WWSC, Teknikringen 56, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gordon Morris and Derek McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1840; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081840
Received: 25 March 2020 / Revised: 8 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: Structure-Function Relationships)
Many biopolymers exhibit a strong complexing ability for multivalent ions. Often such ions form ionic bridges between the polymer chains. This leads to the formation of ionic cross linked networks and supermolecular structures, thus promoting the modification of the behavior of solid and gel polymer networks. Sorption of biopolymers on fiber surfaces and interfaces increases substantially in the case of multivalent ions, e.g., calcium being available for ionic crosslinking. Through controlled adsorption and ionic crosslinking surface modification of textile fibers with biopolymers can be achieved, thus altering the characteristics at the interface between fiber and surrounding matrices. A brief introduction on the differences deriving from the biopolymers, as their interaction with other compounds, is given. Functional models are presented and specified by several examples from previous and recent studies. The relevance of ionic crosslinks in biopolymers is discussed by means of selected examples of wider use. View Full-Text
Keywords: multivalent ions; bivalent ions; biopolymers; crosslinking; complexation; polyamino acids; glycoproteins; interface modification multivalent ions; bivalent ions; biopolymers; crosslinking; complexation; polyamino acids; glycoproteins; interface modification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wurm, F.; Rietzler, B.; Pham, T.; Bechtold, T. Multivalent Ions as Reactive Crosslinkers for Biopolymers—A Review. Molecules 2020, 25, 1840.

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