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Open AccessArticle

Kinetics Study of Microwave-Assisted Brine Extraction of Lipid from the Microalgae Nannochloropsis sp.

1
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cristina González-Fernandez and Luisa Gouveia
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040784
Received: 2 November 2019 / Revised: 9 December 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 12 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalgae for Production of Bioproducts and Biofuels)
The kinetics of lipid extraction utilizing microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) from Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae were studied using a low cost and green solvent, namely brine (NaCl) solution. The kinetic modelling of the lipid extraction was performed to evaluate the mechanism of the lipid mass transfer using different extraction models, including Fick’s Law, First and Second-order Rate Law and the Patricelli mathematical model. The Patricelli mathematical model described the kinetics of lipid extraction well, with the highest average values of determination coefficient (R2 ≥ 0.952) and the lowest average values of mean relative percentage deviation (MRPD ≤ 8.666%). The lipid analysis indicated a positive influence of the microwave temperature and time on the quantity and quality of extracted lipids. SEM analysis of spent microalgae clearly shows an increase in the distorted cell with increase microwave temperature and time, which could be directly correlated to the mechanism of the MAE-brine technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: microwave-assisted extraction; brine; kinetics; lipid; microalgae; polyunsaturated fatty acids microwave-assisted extraction; brine; kinetics; lipid; microalgae; polyunsaturated fatty acids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zghaibi, N.; Omar, R.; Mustapa Kamal, S.M.; Awang Biak, D.R.; Harun, R. Kinetics Study of Microwave-Assisted Brine Extraction of Lipid from the Microalgae Nannochloropsis sp.. Molecules 2020, 25, 784.

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