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Open AccessArticle

Chemical, Bioactivity, and Biosynthetic Screening of Epiphytic Fungus Zasmidium pseudotsugae

1
Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2
Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience and Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, St. Augustine, FL 32080, USA
3
Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1ZA, Canada
4
Faculté de Foresterie et Géomatique, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
5
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Daniel Krug and Lena Keller
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2358; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102358
Received: 19 April 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 19 May 2020
We report the first secondary metabolite, 8,8′-bijuglone, obtained from pure cultures of the slow growing Douglas fir- (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) foliage-associated fungus Zasmidium pseudotsugae. The quinone was characterized using extensive LC/MS and NMR-based spectroscopic methods. 8,8′-Bijuglone exhibited moderate antibiotic activity against Gram-positive pathogens and weak cytotoxic activity in the NCI-60 cell line panel and in our in-house human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) cell line. An analysis of the fungal genome sequence to assess its metabolic potential was implemented using the bioinformatic tool antiSMASH. In total, 36 putative biosynthetic gene clusters were found with a majority encoding for polyketides (17), followed by non-ribosomal peptides (14), terpenes (2), ribosomal peptides (1), and compounds with mixed biosynthetic origin (2). This study demonstrates that foliage associated fungi of conifers produce antimicrobial metabolites and suggests this guild of fungi may present a rich source of novel molecules. View Full-Text
Keywords: epiphytic fungi; Zasmidium pseudotsugae; Mycosphaerellaceae; cytotoxic activity; quinone; 8,8′-bijuglone; genome mining epiphytic fungi; Zasmidium pseudotsugae; Mycosphaerellaceae; cytotoxic activity; quinone; 8,8′-bijuglone; genome mining
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MDPI and ACS Style

González-Montiel, G.A.; Kaweesa, E.N.; Feau, N.; Hamelin, R.C.; Stone, J.K.; Loesgen, S. Chemical, Bioactivity, and Biosynthetic Screening of Epiphytic Fungus Zasmidium pseudotsugae. Molecules 2020, 25, 2358.

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