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Open AccessArticle

Glycomacropeptide Ameliorates Indomethacin-Induced Enteropathy in Rats by Modifying Intestinal Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

1
Department of Microbiology, Basic Science Center, Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20131, Mexico
2
National Council of Science and Technology, Mexico City 03940, Mexico
3
Department of Morphology, Basic Science Center, Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20131, Mexico
4
Unit of Familiar Medicine #8, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Aguascalientes 20180, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Paula A. C. Gomes, Stefania Galdiero and Cátia Teixeira
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2351; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102351
Received: 21 April 2020 / Revised: 13 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 18 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Peptides—From Therapy to Nutrition)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy is considered a serious and increasing clinical problem without available treatment. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid peptide derived from milk κ-casein with numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of GMP on NSAID enteropathy in rats. Enteropathy was induced by seven days oral indomethacin administration. Rats were orally GMP treated from seven days previous and during the establishment of the enteropathy model. Changes in metabolism, hematological and biochemical blood alterations, intestinal inflammation and oxidative damage were analyzed. Integrity barrier markers, macroscopic intestinal damage and survival rate were also evaluated. GMP treatment prevented anorexia and weight loss in animals. Furthermore, prophylaxis with GMP ameliorated the decline in hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and total protein levels. The treatment had no therapeutic efficacy on the decrease of occludin and mucin (MUC)-2 expression in intestinal tissue. However, GMP markedly decreased neutrophil infiltration, and CXCL1, interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Nitric oxide production and lipid hydroperoxide level in the small intestine were also diminished. These beneficial effects were mirrored by preventing ulcer development and increasing animal survival. These results suggest that GMP may protect against NSAID enteropathy through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; intestinal damage; glycomacropeptide; neutrophil infiltration; inflammatory mediators; oxidative damage; mucosal barrier integrity nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; intestinal damage; glycomacropeptide; neutrophil infiltration; inflammatory mediators; oxidative damage; mucosal barrier integrity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cervantes-García, D.; Bahena-Delgado, A.I.; Jiménez, M.; Córdova-Dávalos, L.E.; Ruiz-Esparza Palacios, V.; Sánchez-Alemán, E.; Martínez-Saldaña, M.C.; Salinas, E. Glycomacropeptide Ameliorates Indomethacin-Induced Enteropathy in Rats by Modifying Intestinal Inflammation and Oxidative Stress. Molecules 2020, 25, 2351.

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