Soybean (Glycine max L.) is a good source of natural antioxidants and commonly consumed as fermented products such as cheonggukjang, miso, tempeh, and sufu in Asian countries. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of novel endophytic bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
RWL-1 as a starter for soybean fermentation. During fermentation, the cooked soybeans were inoculated with different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%) of B. amyloliquefaciens
RWL-1. The changes in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, total phenolic contents, isoflavones (Daidzin, Genistin, Glycitin, Daidzein, Glycitein, and Genistein), amino acids (aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, cysteine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine, and proline) composition, and minerals (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, nickel, lead, arsenic, and zinc) were investigated. The level of antioxidants, total phenolic contents, isoflavones, and total amino acids were higher in fermented soybean inoculated with 1% B. amyloliquefaciens
RWL-1 after 60 h of fermentation as compared to control, 3% and 5% B. amyloliquefaciens
RWL-1. Additionally, fermented soybean inoculated with 5% B. amyloliquefaciens
RWL-1 showed the highest values for mineral contents. Changes in antioxidant activities and bioactive compounds depended on the concentration of the strain used for fermentation. From these results, we conclude that fermented soybean has strong antioxidant activity, probably due to its increased total phenolic contents and aglycone isoflavone that resulted from fermentation. Such natural antioxidants could be used in drug and food industries and can be considered to alleviate oxidative stress.