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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 as a New Potential Strain for Augmenting Biochemical and Nutritional Composition of Fermented Soybean

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Basic and Applied Scientific Research Center, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Biology, College of Science, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Institute for Research & Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, Nizwa 616, Oman
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School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francesco Cacciola, Alessia Fazio and Pierluigi Plastina
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2346; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102346
Received: 13 April 2020 / Revised: 1 May 2020 / Accepted: 12 May 2020 / Published: 18 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Fermented Products)
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is a good source of natural antioxidants and commonly consumed as fermented products such as cheonggukjang, miso, tempeh, and sufu in Asian countries. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of novel endophytic bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 as a starter for soybean fermentation. During fermentation, the cooked soybeans were inoculated with different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%) of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1. The changes in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, total phenolic contents, isoflavones (Daidzin, Genistin, Glycitin, Daidzein, Glycitein, and Genistein), amino acids (aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, cysteine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine, and proline) composition, and minerals (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, nickel, lead, arsenic, and zinc) were investigated. The level of antioxidants, total phenolic contents, isoflavones, and total amino acids were higher in fermented soybean inoculated with 1% B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 after 60 h of fermentation as compared to control, 3% and 5% B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1. Additionally, fermented soybean inoculated with 5% B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 showed the highest values for mineral contents. Changes in antioxidant activities and bioactive compounds depended on the concentration of the strain used for fermentation. From these results, we conclude that fermented soybean has strong antioxidant activity, probably due to its increased total phenolic contents and aglycone isoflavone that resulted from fermentation. Such natural antioxidants could be used in drug and food industries and can be considered to alleviate oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermented soybean; fermentation; antioxidant activity; amino acid; isoflavones; nutritional composition fermented soybean; fermentation; antioxidant activity; amino acid; isoflavones; nutritional composition
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Shahzad, R.; Shehzad, A.; Bilal, S.; Lee, I.-J. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 as a New Potential Strain for Augmenting Biochemical and Nutritional Composition of Fermented Soybean. Molecules 2020, 25, 2346.

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