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Open AccessReview

Nasal Drug Delivery of Anticancer Drugs for the Treatment of Glioblastoma: Preclinical and Clinical Trials

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90610-000, Brazil
2
Food and Drug Department, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 27/a, 43124 Parma, Italy
3
Laboratório de Nanotecnologia Aplicada à Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS 96210-900, Brazil
4
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biociências, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS 900500-170, Brazil
5
Departamento de Química Orgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91501-970, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These Authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4312; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234312
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 24 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Anticancer Drugs)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain tumor, being characterized by the rapid growth and invasion of the surrounding tissue. The current standard treatment for glioblastoma is surgery, followed by radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy, typically with temozolomide. Although extensive research has been carried out over the past years to develop a more effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of GBM, efforts have not provided major improvements in terms of the overall survival of patients. Consequently, new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Overcoming the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a major challenge in the development of therapies for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In this context, the intranasal route of drug administration has been proposed as a non-invasive alternative route for directly targeting the CNS. This route of drug administration bypasses the BBB and reduces the systemic side effects. Recently, several formulations have been developed for further enhancing nose-to-brain transport, mainly with the use of nano-sized and nanostructured drug delivery systems. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the strategies that have been developed for delivering anticancer compounds for the treatment of GBM while using nasal administration. In particular, the specific properties of nanomedicines proposed for nose-to-brain delivery will be critically evaluated. The preclinical and clinical data considered supporting the idea that nasal delivery of anticancer drugs may represent a breakthrough advancement in the fight against GBM. View Full-Text
Keywords: nasal delivery; glioblastoma multiforme; drug delivery; nanoparticles; nose-to-brain delivery; pre-clinical studies; clinical evaluation nasal delivery; glioblastoma multiforme; drug delivery; nanoparticles; nose-to-brain delivery; pre-clinical studies; clinical evaluation
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Bruinsmann, F.A.; Richter Vaz, G.; de Cristo Soares Alves, A.; Aguirre, T.; Raffin Pohlmann, A.; Stanisçuaski Guterres, S.; Sonvico, F. Nasal Drug Delivery of Anticancer Drugs for the Treatment of Glioblastoma: Preclinical and Clinical Trials. Molecules 2019, 24, 4312.

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