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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Mixed Functionalization of Organic Ligands in UiO-66: A Tool to Design Metal–Organic Frameworks for Tailored Microextraction

1
Departamento de Química, Unidad Departamental de Química Analítica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Tenerife, 38206 La Laguna, Spain
2
Laboratorio de Rayos X y Materiales Moleculares (MATMOL), Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Tenerife, 38206 La Laguna, Spain
3
University Institute of Tropical Diseases and Public Health, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Tenerife, 38206 La Laguna, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3656; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203656
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 3 October 2019 / Accepted: 3 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Organic Frameworks: Synthesis and Application)
The mixed-ligand strategy was selected as an approach to tailor a metal–organic framework (MOF) with microextraction purposes. The strategy led to the synthesis of up to twelve UiO-66-based MOFs with different amounts of functionalized terephthalate ligands (H-bdc), including nitro (-NO2) and amino (-NH2) groups (NO2-bdc and NH2-bdc, respectively). Increases of 25% in ligands were used in each case, and different pore environments were thus obtained in the resulting crystals. Characterization of MOFs includes powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The obtained MOFs with different degrees and natures of functionalization were tested as sorbents in a dispersive miniaturized solid-phase extraction (D-µSPE) method in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diode array detection (DAD), to evaluate the influence of mixed functionalization of the MOF on the analytical performance of the entire microextraction method. Eight organic pollutants of different natures were studied, using a concentration level of 5 µg· L−1 to mimic contaminated waters. Target pollutants included carbamazepine, 4-cumylphenol, benzophenone-3, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-octylphenol, chrysene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, and triclosan, as representatives of drugs, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and disinfectants. Structurally, they differ in size and some of them present polar groups able to form H-bond interactions, either as donors (-NH2) or acceptors (-NO2), permitting us to evaluate possible interactions between MOF pore functionalities and analytes’ groups. As a result, extraction efficiencies can reach values of up to 60%, despite employing a microextraction approach, with four main trends of behavior being observed, depending on the analyte and the MOF. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal–organic frameworks; dispersive miniaturized solid-phase extraction; mixed functionalization; interactions MOF–analyte; UiO-66 metal–organic frameworks; dispersive miniaturized solid-phase extraction; mixed functionalization; interactions MOF–analyte; UiO-66
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MDPI and ACS Style

González-Rodríguez, G.; Taima-Mancera, I.; Lago, A.B.; Ayala, J.H.; Pasán, J.; Pino, V. Mixed Functionalization of Organic Ligands in UiO-66: A Tool to Design Metal–Organic Frameworks for Tailored Microextraction. Molecules 2019, 24, 3656.

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