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Efficient Homogenization-Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins and Flavonols from Bog Bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) Marc with Carnosic Acid as an Antioxidant Additive

1
Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
2
Bureau of Silviculture in Daxing’anling Region, Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang 165000, China
3
Heilongjiang Institute of Construction Technology, Harbin 150025, China
4
Heilongjiang Daxing’anling Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Jiagedaqi 165000, China
5
School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142537
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II)
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Abstract

To explore the optimum conditions for the extraction of anthocyanins and flavonols from bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) marc on a single-factor experimental basis, a response surface methodology was adopted for this intensive study. The extraction procedure was carried out in a Waring blender and followed an ultrasonic bath, and the natural antioxidant carnosic acid was added to inhibit oxidation. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: a volume fraction of ethanol of 70%, an antioxidant content of 0.02% (the mass of sample) carnosic acid, a liquid–solid ratio of 16 mL/g, a homogenization time of 3 min, a reaction temperature of 55 °C, an ultrasound irradiation frequency of 80 kHz, an ultrasound irradiation power of 200 W, and an ultrasound irradiation time of 40 min. Satisfactory yields of anthocyanins (13.95 ± 0.37 mg/g) and flavonols (3.51 ± 0.16 mg/g) were obtained. The experimental results showed that the carnosic acid played an effective antioxidant role in the extraction process of anthocyanins and flavonols with a green and safety guarantee. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant capacity; polyphenol; fruit marc; natural antioxidant; response surface methodology antioxidant capacity; polyphenol; fruit marc; natural antioxidant; response surface methodology
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Jin, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, D.; Liu, D.; Zhang, C.; Qi, H.; Gu, H.; Yang, L.; Zhou, Z. Efficient Homogenization-Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins and Flavonols from Bog Bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) Marc with Carnosic Acid as an Antioxidant Additive. Molecules 2019, 24, 2537.

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