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Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol into Ethyl Levulinate over Glucose-Derived Carbon-Based Solid Acid in Ethanol

Analysis and Testing Center, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000, Henan, China
College of Food Science, Xinyang Agriculture and Forestry University, Xinyang 464000, Henan, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1881;
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefinery and Biomass Conversion and Utilization)
PDF [2424 KB, uploaded 16 May 2019]


In this study, a carbon-based solid acid was created through the sulfonation of carbon obtained from the hydrothermal pretreatment of glucose. Additionally, ethyl levulinate, a viable liquid biofuel, was produced from furfuryl alcohol using the environmentally benign and low-cost catalyst in ethanol. Studies for optimizing the reaction conditions, such as reaction time, temperature, and catalyst loading, were performed. Under the optimal conditions, a maximum ethyl levulinate yield of 67.1% was obtained. The recovered catalyst activity (Ethyl levulinate yield 57.3%) remained high after being used four times, and it was easily regenerated with a simple sulfonation process. Moreover, the catalyst was characterized using FT-IR, XRD, SEM, elemental analysis, and acid-base titration techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: furfuryl alcohol; ethanol; ethyl levulinate; carbon-based solid acid furfuryl alcohol; ethanol; ethyl levulinate; carbon-based solid acid

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, G.; Liu, M.; Xia, X.; Li, L.; Xu, B. Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol into Ethyl Levulinate over Glucose-Derived Carbon-Based Solid Acid in Ethanol. Molecules 2019, 24, 1881.

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