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High Production of Chitinolytic Activity in Halophilic Conditions by a New Marine Strain of Clonostachys rosea

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Ecologiche e Biologiche, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
2
Laboratorio di Ecologia dei Funghi Marini, CoNISMa, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
3
Laboratorio di Microbiologia Marina Applicata, CoNISMa, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101880
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chitin and Chitosan Science)
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Abstract

Twenty-eight fungal strains have been isolated from different natural marine substrates and plate screened for their production of chitinolytic activity. The two apparent best producers, Trichoderma lixii IG127 and Clonostachys rosea IG119, were screened in shaken cultures in media containing 1% colloidal chitin, 1% yeast nitrogen base and 38‰ NaCl, for their ability to produce chitinolytic enzymes under halophilic conditions. In addition, they were tested for optimal growth conditions with respect to pH, salinity and temperature. The Trichoderma strain appeared to be a slight halotolerant fungus, while C. rosea IG119 clearly showed to be a halophilic marine fungus, its optimal growth conditions being very coherent for life in the marine environment (i.e., pH 8.0, salinity 38‰). Due to its high and relatively fast activity (258 U/L after 192 h of growth) accompanied by its halophilic behaviour (growth from 0 to 160‰ of salinity), C. rosea was selected for further studies. In view of possible industrial applications, its medium for chitinolytic enzyme production was optimized by Response Surface Methodology using 1% colloidal chitin and different concentrations of corn step liquor and yeast nitrogen base (0–0.5%). Time course of growth under optimized condition showed that maximum activity (394 U/L) was recorded after 120 h on medium containing Corn Steep Liquor 0.47% and Yeast Nitrogen Base 0.37%. Maximum of productivity (3.3 U/Lh) was recorded at the same incubation time. This was the first study that demonstrated high chitinolytic activity in a marine strain of C. rosea. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine fungi; halophiles; chitinolytic enzymes; high producer; Clonostachys rosea; screening; Response Surface Methodology marine fungi; halophiles; chitinolytic enzymes; high producer; Clonostachys rosea; screening; Response Surface Methodology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pasqualetti, M.; Barghini, P.; Giovannini, V.; Fenice, M. High Production of Chitinolytic Activity in Halophilic Conditions by a New Marine Strain of Clonostachys rosea. Molecules 2019, 24, 1880.

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