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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082009

Computational-Based Study of QuEChERS Extraction of Cyclohexanedione Herbicide Residues in Soil by Chemometric Modeling

Unit Plant Protection Products, DTEVPF, INIA. Crta. La Coruña, Km.7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Abstract

Assessment of two buffered QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) versions (i.e., citrate and acetate) modified by including methanol to recover the residues of three cyclohexanedione oxime (CHD) herbicides and three of their byproducts from agricultural soil was performed. In this context, a full second-order face-centered factorial experimental design was developed to quantify the influences of the main five variables (i.e., extraction time, water content, soil weight, and extraction solvent volume and composition) on the target compound recoveries. The fitting equations satisfactorily described the extraction process behavior. The mathematical models also showed the most influencing independent variables (i.e., extraction solvent composition and soil weight). Handling simpler expressions was possible with the acetate QuEChERS but not with the citrate QuEChERS. The recoveries of the CHD residues were close to 100% after performing the extraction under suitable conditions. Furthermore, dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) clean-up steps were assessed to reduce the matrix effect in mass spectrometry. In this sense, the citrate QuEChERS in combination with the PSA + C18 clean-up step was the best option for the extraction of CHD residues. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; cyclohexanedione oxime herbicides; soil matrix; QuEChERS; chemometric modeling; factorial design; matrix effect pesticides; cyclohexanedione oxime herbicides; soil matrix; QuEChERS; chemometric modeling; factorial design; matrix effect
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Villaverde, J.J.; Sevilla-Morán, B.; López-Goti, C.; Alonso-Prados, J.L.; Sandín-España, P. Computational-Based Study of QuEChERS Extraction of Cyclohexanedione Herbicide Residues in Soil by Chemometric Modeling. Molecules 2018, 23, 2009.

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