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Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1033;

Identification of Peptides in Flowers of Sambucus nigra with Antimicrobial Activity against Aquaculture Pathogens

Laboratorio de Fisiología y Genética Marina (FIGEMA), Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo 1781421, Chile
Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo 1781421, Chile
Centro AquaPacífico, Coquimbo 1781421, Chile
Unidad de Espectrometría de Masas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380494, Chile
Department of Organic Chemistry and CIBER-BBN, Networking Centre on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08007, Spain
School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa
Núcleo de Biotecnología de Curauma, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso 2373223, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclic Peptides)
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The elder (Sambucus spp.) tree has a number of uses in traditional medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of elderberry liquid extract against human pathogenic bacteria and also influenza viruses. These properties have been mainly attributed to phenolic compounds. However, other plant defense molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), may be present. Here, we studied peptide extracts from flowers of Sambucus nigra L. The mass spectrometry analyses determined peptides of 3 to 3.6 kDa, among them, cysteine-rich peptides were identified with antimicrobial activity against various Gram-negative bacteria, including recurrent pathogens of Chilean aquaculture. In addition, membrane blebbing on the bacterial surface after exposure to the cyclotide was visualized by SEM microscopy and SYTOX Green permeabilization assay showed the ability to disrupt the bacterial membrane. We postulate that these peptides exert their action by destroying the bacterial membrane. View Full-Text
Keywords: S. nigra; peptides; antimicrobial activity; fish pathogens; membrane damage S. nigra; peptides; antimicrobial activity; fish pathogens; membrane damage

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Álvarez, C.A.; Barriga, A.; Albericio, F.; Romero, M.S.; Guzmán, F. Identification of Peptides in Flowers of Sambucus nigra with Antimicrobial Activity against Aquaculture Pathogens. Molecules 2018, 23, 1033.

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