Next Article in Journal
A Brief History of Charcot-Leyden Crystal Protein/Galectin-10 Research
Previous Article in Journal
Integrated Proteomics and Lipidomics Investigation of the Mechanism Underlying the Neuroprotective Effect of N-benzylhexadecanamide
Previous Article in Special Issue
Determination of Trace Nickel in Water Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Mixed Micelle-Mediated Cloud Point Extraction
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2930; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112930 (registering DOI)

Rapid Determination of Cadmium Contamination in Lettuce Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

1
College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Key Laboratory of Spectroscopy Sensing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hangzhou 310058, China
3
School of Information Engineering, Zhejiang A & F University, Hangzhou 311300, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [4508 KB, uploaded 9 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Quick access to cadmium (Cd) contamination in lettuce is important to supervise the leafy vegetable growth environment and market. This study aims to apply laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology for fast determination of Cd content and diagnosis of the Cd contamination degree in lettuce. Emission lines Cd II 214.44 nm, Cd II 226.50 nm, and Cd I 228.80 nm were selected to establish the univariate analysis model. Multivariate analysis including partial least squares (PLS) regression, was used to establish Cd content calibration models, and PLS model based on 22 variables selected by genetic algorithm (GA) obtained the best performance with correlation coefficient in the prediction set Rp2 = 0.9716, limit of detection (LOD) = 1.7 mg/kg. K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) and random forest (RF) were used to analyze Cd contamination degree, and RF model obtained the correct classification rate of 100% in prediction set. The preliminary results indicate LIBS coupled with chemometrics could be used as a fast, efficient and low-cost method to assess Cd contamination in the vegetable industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium contamination; lettuce; laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; multivariate analysis; genetic algorithm cadmium contamination; lettuce; laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; multivariate analysis; genetic algorithm
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shen, T.; Kong, W.; Liu, F.; Chen, Z.; Yao, J.; Wang, W.; Peng, J.; Chen, H.; He, Y. Rapid Determination of Cadmium Contamination in Lettuce Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. Molecules 2018, 23, 2930.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top